Organic Fertilizer Is Derived From Quizlet
Organic Fertilizer

Organic Fertilizer Is Derived From Quizlet

  • November 25, 2021

The inaugural ceremony was also attended by State Government’s Joint Secretaries Ashok Barman and DJ Kalita. .

Embryophyte

Embryophyte

Embryophyte

[12] Living embryophytes therefore include hornworts, liverworts, mosses, lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and flowering plants.The name derives from their innovative characteristic of nurturing the young embryo sporophyte during the early stages of its multicellular development within the tissues of the parent gametophyte.The evolutionary origins of the embryophytes are discussed further below, but they are believed to have evolved from within a group of complex green algae during the Paleozoic era (which started around )[13][14] probably from terrestrial unicellular charophytes, similar to extant Klebsormidiophyceae.The latter include chloroplasts, which conduct photosynthesis and store food in the form of starch, and are characteristically pigmented with chlorophylls a and b, generally giving them a bright green color.Firstly, their gametophytes produce sperm and eggs in multicellular structures (called 'antheridia' and 'archegonia'), and fertilization of the ovum takes place within the archegonium rather than in the external environment.Secondly, and most importantly, the initial stage of development of the fertilized egg (the zygote) into a diploid multicellular sporophyte, take place within the archegonium where it is both protected and provided with nutrition.This second feature is the origin of the term 'embryophyte' – the fertilized egg develops into a protected embryo, rather than dispersing as a single cell.In all land plants a disc-like structure called a phragmoplast forms where the cell will divide, a trait only found in the land plants in the streptophyte lineage, some species within their relatives Coleochaetales, Charales and Zygnematales, as well as within subaerial species of the algae order Trentepohliales, and appears to be essential in the adaptation towards a terrestrial life style.The chlorophytes are considerably more diverse (with around 700 genera) and were originally marine, although some groups have since spread into fresh water.Older classifications, as on the left, treated all green algae as a single division of the plant kingdom under the name Chlorophyta.[citation needed] Alternatively, the embryophytes can be sunk into a monophyletic taxon comprising all the streptophytes, as shown below.The higher-level classification of the Viridiplantae varies considerably, resulting in widely different ranks being assigned to the embryophytes, from kingdom to class.The preponderance of molecular evidence as of 2006 suggested that the groups making up the embryophytes are related as shown in the cladogram below (based on Qiu et al. 2006 with additional names from Crane et al.Studies based on morphology rather than on genes and proteins have regularly reached different conclusions; for example that neither the monilophytes (ferns and horsetails) nor the gymnosperms are a natural or monophyletic group.[38] Palaeobotanists have usually followed Banks in treating the tracheophytes or vascular plants as a division,[39] so that the angiosperms become a class or even a subclass.Two contrasting classifications of living land plants Liverworts Marchiantiophyta Marchiantiophyta Mosses Bryophyta Bryophyta Hornworts Anthocerotophyta Anthocerotophyta Tracheophyta Lycophytes Lycopodiophyta Lycophytina Euphyllophytina Ferns and horsetails Pteridophyta Moniliformopses Radiatopses Cycads Cycadophyta Cycadatae Conifers Pinophyta Coniferophytatae Ginkgo Ginkgophyta Ginkgoatae Gnetophytes Gnetophyta Anthophytatae Flowering plants Magnoliophyta.They have usually been placed separately into three divisions under the assumption that the bryophytes are a paraphyletic (more than one lineage) group, but newer research supports the monophyletic (having a common ancestor) model.All three bryophyte groups share a haploid-dominant (gametophyte) life cycle and unbranched sporophytes (the plant's diploid structure).The fact that the bryophytes have a life cycle in common may thus be an artefact of being the oldest extant lineages of land plant, and not the result of close shared ancestry.All other living groups of land plants have a life cycle dominated by the diploid sporophyte generation.Like the vascular plants, bryophytes do have differentiated stems, and although these are most often no more than a few centimeters tall, they do provide mechanical support.Unlike the vascular plants, bryophytes lack true roots or any deep anchoring structures.Some species do grow a filamentous network of horizontal stems, but these have a primary function of mechanical attachment rather than extraction of soil nutrients (Palaeos 2008).During the Silurian and Devonian periods (around ), plants evolved which possessed true vascular tissue, including cells with walls strengthened by lignin (tracheids).But research point out the possibility that both the gametophyte and sporophyte stage were equally independent from each other, and that the mosses and vascular plants in that case are both derived, and has evolved in the opposite direction from the other.In addition to vascular tissues which transport water throughout the body, tracheophytes have an outer layer or cuticle that resists drying out.The sporophyte is the dominant generation, and in modern species develops leaves, stems and roots, while the gametophyte remains very small.The lycophytes or lycopodiophytes – modern clubmosses, spikemosses and quillworts – make up less than 1% of living vascular plants.They have small leaves, often called 'microphylls' or 'lycophylls', which are borne all along the stems in the clubmosses and spikemosses, and which effectively grow from the base, via an intercalary meristem.[50] It is believed that microphylls evolved from outgrowths on stems, such as spines, which later acquired veins (vascular traces).The euphyllophytes, making up more than 99% of living vascular plant species, have large 'true' leaves (megaphylls), which effectively grow from the sides or the apex, via marginal or apical meristems.However, this has probably resulted from reduction, as evidenced by early fossil horsetails, in which the leaves are broad with branching veins.Starting from a plant which disperses by spores, highly complex changes are needed to produce seeds. .

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