Organic Fertilizer For Vegetables Walmart
Organic Fertilizer

Organic Fertilizer For Vegetables Walmart

  • November 14, 2021

More often than not, however, the word biomass simply denotes the biological raw material the fuel is made of, or some form of thermally/chemically altered solid end product, like torrefied pellets or briquettes.[4] Biofuel generally involve contemporary carbon fixation, such as those that occur in plants or microalgae through the process of photosynthesis.The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) defines bioenergy as a renewable form of energy.Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, or sweet sorghum.Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production.The International Energy Agency want biofuels to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050, in order to reduce dependency on petroleum.[6] However, the production and consumption of biofuels are not on track to meet the IEA's sustainable development scenario.The crop's sugar, starch, or oil content is converted into biodiesel or ethanol, using transesterification, or yeast fermentation.[11][12] Algal fuels have high yields,[13] can be grown with minimal impact on fresh water resources,[14][15] can be produced using saline water and wastewater, have a high ignition point,[16] and are biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled.[17][18] Production requires large amounts of energy and fertilizer, the produced fuel degrades faster than other biofuels, and it does not flow well in cold temperatures.[11] By 2017, due to economic considerations, most efforts to produce fuel from algae have been abandoned or changed to other applications.Electrofuels are made by storing electrical energy in the chemical bonds of liquids and gases.The primary targets are butanol, biodiesel, and hydrogen, but include other alcohols and carbon-containing gases such as methane and butane.Light is converted to chemical energy, typically by reducing protons to hydrogen, or carbon dioxide to organic compounds.[21] It can be produced either from biodegradable waste materials or by the use of energy crops fed into anaerobic digesters to supplement gas yields.The resulting gas mixture, syngas, is more efficient than direct combustion of the original biofuel; more of the energy contained in the fuel is extracted.Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion engines, turbines or high-temperature fuel cells.Ethanol has a smaller energy density than that of gasoline; this means it takes more fuel (volume and mass) to produce the same amount of work.In high-altitude (thin air) locations, some states mandate a mix of gasoline and ethanol as a winter oxidizer to reduce atmospheric pollution emissions.As they do not require a chimney and are "flueless", bioethanol fires[26] are extremely useful[citation needed] for newly built homes and apartments without a flue.Ethanol has roughly one-third lower energy content per unit of volume compared to gasoline.[citation needed] Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36] As of 2020 , researchers at Australia's CSIRO have been studying safflower oil as an engine lubricant, and researchers at Montana State University's Advanced Fuels Center in the US have been studying the oil's performance in a large diesel engine, with results described as a "game-changer".It can also be used in its pure form (B100) in diesel engines, but some maintenance and performance problems may then occur during wintertime utilization, since the fuel becomes somewhat more viscous at lower temperatures, depending on the feedstock used.In some countries, manufacturers cover their diesel engines under warranty for B100 use, although Volkswagen of Germany, for example, asks drivers to check by telephone with the VW environmental services department before switching to B100.In most cases, biodiesel is compatible with diesel engines from 1994 onwards, which use 'Viton' (by DuPont) synthetic rubber in their mechanical fuel injection systems.Electronically controlled 'common rail' and 'Unit Injector' type systems from the late 1990s onwards may only use biodiesel blended with conventional diesel fuel.These engines have finely metered and atomized multiple-stage injection systems that are very sensitive to the viscosity of the fuel.It also effectively cleans the engine combustion chamber of carbon deposits, helping to maintain efficiency.[44] Avril Group produces under the brand Diester, a fifth of 11 million tons of biodiesel consumed annually by the European Union.[46][47] Hydrocracking is a refinery method that uses elevated temperatures and pressure in the presence of a catalyst to break down larger molecules, such as those found in vegetable oils, into shorter hydrocarbon chains used in diesel engines.Used vegetable oil is increasingly being processed into biodiesel, or (more rarely) cleaned of water and particulates and then used as a fuel.As with 100% biodiesel (B100), to ensure the fuel injectors atomize the vegetable oil in the correct pattern for efficient combustion, vegetable oil fuel must be heated to reduce its viscosity to that of diesel, either by electric coils or heat exchangers.MAN B&W Diesel, Wärtsilä, and Deutz AG, as well as a number of smaller companies, such as Elsbett, offer engines that are compatible with straight vegetable oil, without the need for after-market modifications.Several companies, such as Elsbett or Wolf, have developed professional conversion kits and successfully installed hundreds of them over the last decades.The resulting product is a straight-chain hydrocarbon with a high cetane number, low in aromatics and sulfur and does not contain oxygen.They have several advantages over biodiesel, including good performance at low temperatures, no storage stability problems and no susceptibility to microbial attack.Although bioethers are likely to replace petroethers in the UK, it is highly unlikely they will become a fuel in and of itself due to the low energy density.It is the total amount of absorption and emissions that together determines if the GHG life cycle cost of a biofuel project is positive, neutral or negative.If emissions during production, processing, transport and combustion are higher than what is absorbed, both above and below ground during crop growth, the GHG life cycle cost is positive.[68] The bottom chart displays the estimated yield necessary to achieve CO 2 negativity for different levels of existing soil carbon saturation.For instance, the IPCC argues that the traditional use of wood in cook stoves and open fires produces pollutants, which can lead to severe health and environmental consequences.However, a shift to modern bioenergy contribute to improved livelihoods and can reduce land degradation and impacts on ecosystem services.[a] According to the IPCC, there is strong evidence that modern bioenergy has "large positive impacts" on air quality.When combusted in industrial facilities, most of the pollutants originating from woody biomass reduce by 97-99%, compared to open burning.The average human power consumption on ice-free land is 0.125 W/m2 (heat and electricity combined), although rising to 20 W/m2 in urban and industrial areas.As mentioned above, Smil estimates that the world average for wind, hydro and solar power production is 1 W/m2, 3 W/m2 and 5 W/m2 respectively.In order to match these power densities, plantation yields must reach 17 t/ha, 50 t/ha and 83 t/ha for wind, hydro and solar respectively.It also seems achievable for elephant grasses, e.g. miscanthus (10–40 t/ha, or 0.6–2.4 W/m2), and napier (15–80 t/ha, or 0.9–4.8 W/m2), but unlikely for forest and many other types of biomass crops – Smil's estimate for natural temperate mixed forests is 1.5–2 dry tonnes per hectare (2–2,5 m3, equivalent to 0.1 W/m2), ranging from 0.9 m3 in Greece to 6 m3 in France).^ «Traditional biomass (fuelwood, charcoal, agricultural residues, animal dung) used for cooking and heating by some 2.8 billion people (38% of global population) in non-OECD countries accounts for more than half of all bioenergy used worldwide (IEA 2017; REN21 2018) (Cross-Chapter Box 7 in Chapter 6).Traditional biomass is land-intensive due to reliance on open fires, inefficient stoves and overharvesting of woodfuel, contributing to land degradation, losses in biodiversity and reduced ecosystem services (IEA 2017; Bailis et al.

2015; Masera et al. 2015; Specht et al.

2015; Fritsche et al. 2017; Fuso Nerini et al. 2017).Scenarios to significantly reduce reliance on traditional biomass in developing countries present multiple co-benefits (high evidence, high agreement), including reduced emissions of black carbon, a short-lived climate forcer that also causes respiratory disease (Shindell et al.

2012).A shift from traditional to modern bioenergy, especially in the African context, contributes to improved livelihoods and can reduce land degradation and impacts on ecosystem services (Smeets et al. 2012; Gasparatos et al. 2018; Mudombi et al. 2018).» IPCC 2019a. .

Top 25 vertical farming companies

Top 25 vertical farming companies

Top 25 vertical farming companies

there are a number of startup companies emerging in the sector and attracting tens of millions of dollars in investment; and more people live in cities than do in rural areas, a global trend which seems irreversible, and this means that the demand for fresh produce will increase in urban areas, and bringing the production closer to the consumer would make sense.The third thing we could have added is that there is the range of new technologies available now that make vertical farming in urban areas cost-effective and possibly profitable.Some of these technologies have been available for some time, decades even, but they were probably too expensive in the past to make vertical farming a viable business proposition.The above list is a very simple breakdown of the fundamental technologies that will be required to, basically, reduce to a minimum or even eliminate the need for human involvement.CMU’s version is called ACESys, short for Automation, Culture, Environment, and Systems Model for Vertical Farming.In their introduction to the paper, the authors note: “Greenhouse cultivation has evolved from simple covered rows of open-fields crops to highly sophisticated controlled environment agriculture facilities that projected the image of plant factories for urban farming.“The advances and improvements in CEA have promoted the scientific solutions for the efficient production of plants in populated cities and multi-story buildings.”.Anyway, whatever we or anyone else thinks of the prospects, there are a large number of companies which have entered the field and we thought it would a good idea to make a list of them.The reason is that vertical farms are currently not central to Samsung’s business by any stretch of the imagination, although the company may have a contribution to make to the sector going forward.This company has won many plaudits for its operation and uses its own patented “aeroponic technology… to take indoor vertical faming to a new level of precision and productivity with minimal environmental impact and virtually zero risk”.The term “aeroponic” farming refers to the process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or any earth-like material, which is known as “geoponics”.Although Plenty doesn’t make seem to mention aeroponics on its website, it’s difficult to see how it can reduce the water consumption of its vertical farms by 95 percent, as it claims to do, without the air-and-mist system as described above.Like the other big vertical farming companies on this list, Plenty is another one that retails its produce, which include kale and other greens, as well as some exotic herbs.Plenty is probably the biggest company in terms of the amount of money it has raised in funding – approximately $226 million, according to CrunchBase.Area Development reported that the company was investing $27 million in a vertical farm system in Pennsylvania, which would suggest it’s well financed.It doesn’t look like Bowery supplies its platform to other companies, even though some might be interested in its claims, such as: 95 percent less water usage than traditional agriculture; 100 times more productive on the same amount of land; and from harvest to shelf “within a few days”.This company appears to use robotics perhaps more than the others, in the picking process at least, and claims to operate fully autonomous indoor farming.CropOne, founded in 2011, claims to use just 1 percent of the amount of the water required by traditional agriculture, using a hydroponic system.This energy efficiency – and, therefore, lower cost – is a critical factor in the likelihood of making profits in vertical farming being quite high.Not much information is immediately available about this company, but according to the Angel investment website, it raised almost $5 million in 2014, which is a long ago in startup terms.Getting even closer to the “demon weed”, this company specializes in providing water-efficient solutions for indoor cannabis cultivation, and counts more than 800 grow facilities as clients and partners.The company appears to use hydroponic systems in the main, but given its long client list, it probably installs a variety of technologies, depending on the customers’ requirements.Voeks Inc provides a range of services including for vertical farms, mostly in the areas of heating and irrigation systems, as well as nutrient delivery.SananBio provides vertical farming solutions which mainly involve the hardware, such as the lights and the platforms.Backed by a significant scientific research and development unit, the company is one of the leading suppliers of vertical farm systems in Asia and is expanding in the US.Talking about LED lights, which basically replace sunlight, HelioSpectra is one of the leading suppliers in the indoor farming market, with a big client base from the cannabis growing sector.Not only because Agrilution is European – German, to be more precise – but also because it supplies what it describes as a “personal vertical farming ecosystem”.In other words, its “PlantCube” product can be installed into the average home, taking up a similar amount of space as a dining table or large fish tank.Altius looks more like a social venture than a private enterprise, and we couldn’t immediately find whether it has raised any equity finance.Vertical farms are the culmination of emerging technology in a relatively new market, so there’s bound to be many companies claiming to be the “first” or “biggest”, and of course “revolutionary”.Another vertical farming specialist, also with an eye on the Middle East, Intelligent Growth Solutions is actually a Scottish company.Interestingly, IGS claims to be increasing LED efficiency by a further 50 percent, which would give it a big advantage since lighting is probably the single biggest cost in indoor farming systems.The company also emphasizes automation in its solutions, saying that its towers and overall system uses robotics and is reducing labor costs by up to 80 percent.FarmOne uses the hydroponic method and provides smartphone apps for managing the facility, which can either be a ready-made, off-the-shelf solution or tailor-made for the individual customer.Sky Greens uses a patented system which integrates a range of hydraulics to build very tall structures – 9 meters with 38 tiers of growing troughs – which can use hydroponic or soil-based processes.It has big-time partners as well, including telecommunications giant NTT, with which it jointly developed an internet of things platform for its facilities, which inevitably use artificial intelligence as well.Among its projects is one called “Sunqiao Urban Agricultural District”, covering an area of approximately 100 hectares, located between Shanghai’s main airport and the city center.The development is said to designed to integrate vertical farming systems which could provide products such as spinach, kale, bok choi, watercress and so on.We’ve tried to concentrate on companies that provide complete solutions in this list, rather than individual components, such as lighting or watering systems and so on, although some of them are included.Hopefully, they won’t disappear completely because it seems like a good idea to have indoor farms in urban areas so that healthy leafy greens are within reach for city dwellers who are currently on a diet of greasy fast food.Late edits: It’s been brought to our attention by the people at Future Crops that their vertical farm is “probably one of the largest 10 in the world in terms of growing and producing surface” – their words.The Dutch company appears to use a combination of hydroponic and aeroponic systems to grow popular herbs such as dill, parsley, oregano and others.It has also been brought to our attention by AEssenceGrows, a vertical farming company operating in Silicon Valley, that it has been providing both fresh produce and cannabis growers with an “automated precision approach to aeroponics indoor growing”.The company says: “Our system uses sensors and advanced software to make aeroponics, with all its inherent benefits, an attractive and viable option.”.Kalera is now scaling operations to include a new growing facility in Orlando, which will have the capacity to produce upwards of 5 million heads of lettuce per year. .

Dog Treats: Puppy Treats & Chews

Dog Treats: Puppy Treats & Chews

Dog Treats: Puppy Treats & Chews

Dog treats are a wonderful way to bond with your pet, give them something to chew on, reward them for good behavior, or just see them jump for joy.Even pups with food sensitivities have a selection of gluten-free, grain-free, and natural dog treats to choose from.PetSmart offers a wide selection of delicious dog treats and chews your pup will love.This satisfies a dog’s urge to chew while providing some benefits like freshening breath and fighting plaque. .

Monstera Peru care, images and videos

Monstera Peru care, images and videos

Monstera Peru care, images and videos

Boost the Monstera Peru growth by using a totem pole or letting it climb to a surface so it can get bigger and healthier like it does in nature. .

The Best (Strategist-Approved) Gifts for Gardeners

The Best (Strategist-Approved) Gifts for Gardeners

The Best (Strategist-Approved) Gifts for Gardeners

It comes with everything you need to sprout the tiny tree, and all you have to do is remember to keep its vessel’s reservoir filled with water; a wick that leads from the roots of the plant takes care of the rest.Michael Perrine, founder of rejuvenation and detox clinic Vitality NYC likes this kit, which has everything you need to pickle cucumbers or make kimchi.This lightweight gardening seat will help, and also doubles as a tool bag to keep all their shears, hoes, and rakes in one place.It was recommended to us by Catherine Zeta-Jones, who uses it to tend her New York City rose garden that “no one else is allowed to touch.” $130 at Williams Sonoma Buy.It is made by Jungalow founder and designer Justina Blakeney and available in the off-white color shown here as well as in bronze, mint, or clay.“A nice broom is right at the intersection.”) This gorgeous push-broom from French brush-maker Andrée Jardin is made of thermally treated, humidity-resistant ash wood, which means your gardener can use it all year long.It has a gleaming finish, an architectural silhouette, and a nozzle that puts forth an even flow of water to “simulate a very gentle rain,” according to Cheng.She appreciates that the beds are easy to assemble and modular, “so you can create your own shapes to fit your space.” Plus, she describes the delivery box as “compact” enough to be wrapped as a gift.Nitrile Touch Gloves $5 Marc Hachadourian, the New York Botanical Garden’s director of glasshouse horticulture and senior curator of orchids, told us that most gardening gloves are too thick and can cause him to “lose the sense of touch that lets me feel the difference between a weed and a real plant.” These nitrile gloves are an exception: They’re thick enough to protect him while being thin enough that he can feel the plants he’s working with (and not end up mistaking them for weeds).The company is one of the country’s oldest and largest mail-order seed operations and was recommended to us by recently retired gardeners.Email This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.Some of our latest conquests include the best acne treatments, rolling luggage, pillows for side sleepers, natural anxiety remedies, and bath towels. .

BION ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES INC MANAGEMENT'S

BION ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES INC MANAGEMENT'S

BION ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES INC MANAGEMENT'S

Statements made in this Form 10-Q that are not historical or current facts, which represent the Company's expectations or beliefs including, but not limited to, statements concerning the Company's operations, performance, financial condition, business strategies, and other information, involve substantial risks and uncertainties.Additional risks and uncertainties that may affect forward looking statements about Bion's business and prospects include the possibility that markets for nutrient reduction credits (discussed below) and/or other ways to monetize nutrient reductions and other environmental benefits will be slow to develop (or not develop at all), the existing default by PA1 on its loan secured by the Kreider 1 system, the possibility that competitors will develop more comprehensive and/or less expensive environmental solution, delays in market awareness of Bion and our Systems, uncertainties and costs related to research and development efforts to update and improve Bion's technologies and applications thereof, and/or delays and/or costs exceeding expectations relating to Bion's development of the Initial Project , JVs and/or Projects and failure of marketing strategies, each of which could have both immediate and long term material adverse effects by placing us behind our competitors and requiring expenditures of our limited resources.During the 2016 to 2021 fiscal years, the Company focused a large portion of its activities on developing, testing and demonstrating the 3rd generation of its technology and technology platform ("3G Tech") with emphasis on increasing the efficiency of production of valuable co-products from the waste treatment process, including ammonia nitrogen in the form of organic ammonium bicarbonate products.An application for our first solid ammonium bicarbonate product - AD Nitrogen - has been filed and is in what may be an extended review process due to the novel nature of our 3G Tech in the context of organic certifications (see discussion at "Organic Fertilizer products" at Item below).Bion is now focused primarily on: i) development/construction of its initial commercial-scale 3G Tech installation, ii) developing applications and markets for its organic fertilizer products and its sustainable (conventional and organic) animal protein products, and iii) initiation and development of joint ventures ("JVs") (and related projects) based on the augmented capabilities of our 3G Tech, while (iv) continuing to pursue development opportunities related to large retrofit projects (such as the Kreider poultry project JV) and ongoing R&D activities.These matters are discussed in more detail in Item 1 of our Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2021 and in the Notes to the Financial Statements included herein.Its failure to adequately respond to consumer concerns ranging including food safety, environmental impacts, and humane treatment of animals have provided impetus for plant-based alternatives such as Beyond Meat and Impossible Burger (and many others) being marketed as "sustainable" alternatives for this growing consumer segment of the market.The Company believes that its 3G Tech, in addition to providing superior environmental remediation, creates opportunities for large scale production of i) verifiably sustainable-branded livestock products and ii) verifiably sustainable organic-branded livestock products that will command premium pricing (in part due to ongoing monitoring and third-party verification of environmental performance which will provide meaningful assurances to both consumers and regulatory agencies).Our 3G Tech will also produce (as co-products) biogas and valuable organic fertilizer products, which can be utilized in the production of organic grains for use as feed for raising organic livestock (some of which may be utilized in the Company's JV projects) and/or marketed to the growing organic fertilizer market.The facility will include Bion's 3G Tech platform including: i) covered barns with solar photovoltaic generation, ii) anaerobic digestion for renewable energy recovery; iii) livestock waste treatment and resource recovery technology; iv) Bion's ammonium bicarbonate recovery and crystallization technology and iv) data collection software to document system efficiencies and environmental benefits (with the Bion 3G Tech facilities capable of treating the waste from approximately 1,500 head).The Company anticipates that discussions and negotiations regarding potential JVs with strategic partners in the financial and livestock industries to develop large scale projects will commence during the construction of the Initial Project .We believe that Bion's 3G Tech platform, coupled with common-sense policy changes to U.S. clean water strategy that are already underway, will combine to provide a pathway to true economic and environmental sustainability with 'win-win' benefits for at least a premium sector of the livestock industry, the environment, and the consumer.The 3G Tech platform has been designed to maximize the value of co-products produced during the waste treatment/recovery processes, including pipeline-quality renewable natural gas and organic commercial fertilizer products.All processes will be verifiable by third-parties (including regulatory authorities, certifying boards and consumers) to comply with environmental regulations and trading programs and meet the requirements for: a) renewable energy credits, b) organic certification of the fertilizer coproducts and c) the USDA PVP 'Environmentally Sustainable' branding program Bion anticipates moving forward with the development process of its initial large scale commercial installations of its 3G technology during the 2022 calendar year.In parallel, Bion has worked (which work continues) to advance public policy initiatives that will potentially create markets (in Pennsylvania and other states) that will utilize taxpayer funding for the purchase of verified pollution reductions from agriculture ("credits") by the state (or others) through competitively-bid procurement programs.Bion's 3G technology was developed for implementation on large scale livestock production facilities, where scale drives lower treatment costs and efficient production of co-products.Bion's 3G Tech and technology platform are designed to capture four revenue streams under one umbrella and provide the basis for joint ventures between the Company and larger livestock producers seeking to produce environmental/sustainable product lines.The revenue streams are: a) renewable energy and associated greenhouse gas credits (including US Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and/or Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) credits)(the value and availability of which will vary based on livestock type, geographical locations, and state regulatory programs), b) verified nutrient reductions (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus) that can be used as qualified offsets to the federal Chesapeake Bay mandate and US EPA TMDL ('total maximum daily limit') requirements (the value of which will vary based on livestock type, geographical locations, and state regulatory programs), c) co-products consisting of high value fertilizer for use in organic food production for human consumption and/or to grow feed for use by livestock in Projects, and d) an environmentally sustainable USDA certification that will be incorporated into a "brand" that can address the consumer concerns regarding food safety and sustainability (based on incorporation of all of the third party verified data for greenhouse gas reductions, nutrient reductions and fertilizer products into a digital register).BION'S 3G TECH PLATFORM PROVIDES THE BASIS FOR A JV BUSINESS MODEL WITH FOUR DISTINCT REVENUE STREAMS: 1) pipeline quality renewable natural gas and related carbon and other environmental credits, 2) premium organic fertilizer products, 3) nutrient credits, and 4) premium pricing from USDA PVP-certified 'Environmentally Sustainable' branding at the retail level.Carbon and nutrient credit revenues will be supported by third-party verification of the waste treatment processes that simultaneously capture methane and nutrients, while producing renewable energy and fertilizer products from them with relatively limited incremental cost to Bion.2) Organic Fertilizer products:.The 3G Tech platform has been designed to produce multiple fertilizer products, including: i) ammonium bicarbonate liquid, ii) ammonium bicarbonate in solid crystal form - AD Nitrogen - and iii) soil amendment products that will contain the remaining nitrogen, phosphorus and other micronutrients captured from the livestock waste stream.The Company has filed an OMRI application for the initial version of its crystal product which is presently in the review process ( which may take an extended period of time due the novel nature of Bion's 3G Tech platform in the context of organic certification).The Company believes that organic approvals for its products will: a) provide access to substantially higher value markets compared to synthetic nitrogen products, and/or b) allow its products to be utilized in growing of organic feed grains to be consumed by livestock raised in JVs which will be sold as organic.We also believe that livestock products from animals raised with feed grains grown using Bion organic ammonium bicarbonate fertilizer products (and that otherwise qualify) will receive organic approvals.It is anticipated that the Company will continue to seek approvals for such products during the balance of the current fiscal year and will commence JVs that undertake initial production and marketing of such products during the 2022 calendar year if such approvals have been received..Bion believes that nutrient reduction (and other similar) credits and/or other methods of monetizing environmental benefits from the capture and re-purposing of the nutrients (largely nitrogen and phosphorus) from the livestock waste stream, will become available in multiple states over the next several years.Bion's 'Sustainable' branding program is designed to address a wide array of consumer concerns ranging from: a) 'where does your food come from?'.The first commercial activity in this area is represented by our agreement with Kreider Farms ("KF"), pursuant to which the Kreider 1 system to treat KF's dairy waste streams to reduce nutrient releases to the environment while generating marketable nutrient credits and renewable energy was designed, constructed and entered full-scale operation during 2011.On January 26, 2009 the Board of the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Investment Authority ("Pennvest") approved a $7.75 million loan to Bion PA 1, LLC ("PA1"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, for the initial Kreider Farms project ("Kreider 1 System").The PADEP issued final permits for the Kreider 1 System (including the credit verification plan) on August 1, 2012 on which date the Company deemed that the Kreider 1 System was 'placed in service'.However, to date liquidity in the Pennsylvania nutrient credit market has failed to develop significant breadth and depth, which limited liquidity/depth has negatively impacted Bion's business plans and has resulted in insurmountable challenges to monetizing the nutrient reductions created by PA1's existing Kreider 1 project and Bion's other proposed projects.Additionally, the Company has not made any principal payments, which were to begin in fiscal 2013, and, therefore, the Company has classified the Pennvest Loan as a current liability as of September 30, 2021 .Due to the failure of the Pennsylvania nutrient reduction credit market to develop, the Company determined that the carrying amount of the property and equipment related to the Kreider 1 project exceeded its estimated future undiscounted cash flows based on certain assumptions regarding timing, level and probability of revenues from sales of nutrient reduction credits and, therefore, PA1 and the Company recorded impairments related to the value of the Kreider 1 assets of $1,750,000 and $2,000,000 at June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014 , respectively.This impairment reflects management's judgment that the salvage value of the Kreider 1 assets roughly equals PA1's contractual obligations related to the Kreider 1 System, including expenses related to decommissioning of the Kreider 1 System.The facility has not been commercially operated for approximately six years and has generated zero income.The Company anticipates additional communication with Pennvest on this matter during the current year.It is not possible at this date to predict the final outcome of this matter, but the Company believes it is likely that that the equipment will be sold with the proceeds delivered to Pennvest during the 2022 fiscal year.The economics (potential revenues, profitability and continued operation) of the Kreider 1 System were based almost entirely on the long-term sale of nutrient (nitrogen and/or phosphorus) reduction credits to meet the requirements of the Chesapeake Bay environmental clean-up.During August 2012 , the Company provided Pennvest (and the PADEP) with data demonstrating that the Kreider 1 System met the 'technology guaranty' standards which were incorporated in the Pennvest financing documents and, as a result, the Pennvest Loan has been (and is now) solely an obligation of PA1 since that date.However, the Company's consolidated balance sheet as of June 30, 2021 reflects the Pennvest Loan as a liability of $9,868,495 despite the fact that the obligation (if any) solely an obligation of PA 1.The Company believes that its 3G Tech, in addition to providing superior environmental remediation, creates opportunities for large scale production of: i) verifiably sustainable-branded livestock products and ii) verifiably sustainable organic-branded livestock products that will command premium pricing (in part due to ongoing monitoring and third-party verification of environmental performance which will provide meaningful assurances to both consumers and regulatory agencies).Our 3G Tech platform will also produce revenues from co-products: i) pipeline quality biogas (and related environmental credits) and ii) valuable organic fertilizer products, which can be utilized in the production of organic grains for use as feed for raising organic livestock (some of which may be utilized in the Company's JV projects) and/or marketed to the growing organic fertilizer market.These matters are discussed in more detail in Item 1 of our Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2021 and in the Notes to the Financial Statements included herein.Bion has done extensive pre-development work related to a waste treatment/renewable energy production facility to treat the waste from KF's approximately 6+ million chickens (planned to expand to approximately 9-10 million) (and potentially other poultry operations and/or other waste streams) ('Kreider Renewable Energy Facility' or 'Kreider 2 Project').On May 5, 2016 , the Company executed a stand-alone joint venture agreement with Kreider Farms covering all matters related to development and operation of Kreider 2 system to treat the waste streams from Kreider's poultry facilities in Bion PA2 LLC ("PA2").Based on these discussions and the size of the Kreider 2 Project, we anticipate that when designs are finalized, the Kreider 2 Project will be re-certified for a far larger number of credits (management's current estimates are between 2-4 million (or more) nutrient reduction credits for treatment of the waste stream from Kreider's poultry pursuant to the Company's subsequent amended application during the current fiscal year pursuant to the amended EPA Chesapeake Bay model and agreements between the EPA and PA.The economics (potential revenues and profitability) of the Kreider 2 Project, despite its proposed use of Bion's 3G Tech for increased recovery of marketable by-products, are based in material part the long-term sale of nutrient (nitrogen and/or phosphorus) reduction credits to meet the requirements of the Chesapeake Bay environmental clean-up.However, liquidity in the Pennsylvania nutrient credit market has not yet developed significant breadth and depth, which lack of liquidity has negatively impacted Bion's business plans and will most likely delay PA2's Kreider 2 Project and other proposed projects in Pennsylvania .Note that while Bion believes that the Kreider 2 Project and/or subsequent Bion Projects in PA and the Chesapeake Bay Watershed will eventually generate revenue from the sale of: a) nutrient reductions (credits or in other form), b) renewable energy (and related credits), c) sales of fertilizer products, and/or d) potentially, in time, credits for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, plus e) license fees related to a 'sustainable brand', the Covid-19 pandemic has delayed legislative efforts needed to commence its development.A substantial portion of our activities involve public policy initiatives (by the Company and other stakeholders) to encourage the establishment of appropriate public policies and regulations (at federal, regional, state and local levels) to facilitate cost effective environmental clean-up and, thereby, support our business activities.As developing markets for nutrient reductions become fully-established, Bion anticipates a robust business opportunity to retrofit existing CAFOs and develop Projects, based primarily on the sale of nutrient credits that provide cost-effective alternatives to today's high-cost and failing clean water strategy.To date the market for long-term nutrient reduction credits in Pennsylvania ('PA') has been very slow to develop and the Company's activities have been negatively affected by such lack of development.However, Bion is confident that once these markets are established, the credits it produces will be competitive in the credit trading markets, based on its cost to remove nitrogen from the livestock waste stream, compared to the cost to remove nitrogen through various other treatment activities.Now that Bion has commenced development of its initial project 3G Tech by leasing land and beginning the site-specific design and permitting processes, we believe it will be possible to commence development of a full-scale 3G Project during the 2022 calendar year, but further delays are possible.To date the Company has experienced direct impacts in various areas including but without limitation: i) government ordered shutdowns which have slowed the Company's research and development projects and other initiatives, ii) shifted focus of state and federal governments which is likely to negatively impact the Company's legislative initiatives in Pennsylvania and Washington D. C ., iii) strains and uncertainties in both the equity and debt markets which have made discussion and planning of funding of the Company and its initiatives and projects with investment bankers, banks and potential strategic partners more tenuous, iv) strains and uncertainties in the agricultural sector and markets have made discussion and planning more difficult as future industry conditions are now more difficult to assess and predict, v) constraints due to problems experienced in the global industrial supply chain, vi) due to the age and health of our core management team, all of whom are age 70 or older and have had one or more existing health issues, the Covid-19 pandemic places the Company at greater risk than was previously the case (to a higher degree than would be the case if the Company had a larger, deeper and/or younger core management team), and vii) there almost certainly will be other unanticipated consequences for the Company as a result of the current pandemic emergency and its aftermath.Total depreciation expense was $248 and $207 for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.As a result of the factors described above, the loss from operations was $553,000 and $394,000 for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.Other (income) expense was $111,000 and $104,000 for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively and was all attributable to interest expense for both periods.As of September 30, 2021 , the Company had cash of approximately $3,962,000 .As of September 30, 2021 , the Company had cash of approximately $3,962,000 .However, the Company anticipates substantial increases in demands for capital and operating expenditures as it moves toward commercial implementation of its 3G Tech and development of JVs and, therefore, is likely to continue to face, significant cash flow management challenges due to limited capital resources and working capital constraints which have only recently begun to be alleviated.The Company will need to obtain additional capital to fund its operations and technology development, to satisfy existing creditors, to develop the Initial Project , JVs, Projects (including Integrated Projects) and CAFO Retrofit waste remediation systems (including the Kreider 2 facility) and to continue to maintain equipment at the Kreider 1 facility (subject to agreements being reached with Pennvest as discussed above).Further, the Company's anticipated revenues, if any, from existing projects, JVs and proposed projects will not be sufficient to meet the Company's anticipated operational and capital expenditure needs for many years.Because the Company is not currently generating significant revenues, the Company will need to obtain additional capital to fund its operations and technology development, to satisfy existing creditors, to develop the Initial Project and subsequent Projects.The Company's first commercial activity in the Retrofit segment was represented by our agreement with Kreider Farms ("KF"), pursuant to which the Kreider 1 system to treat KF's dairy waste streams to reduce nutrient releases to the environment while generating marketable nutrient credits and renewable energy was designed, constructed and entered full-scale operation during 2011.On January 26, 2009 the Board of the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Investment Authority ("Pennvest") approved a $7.75 million loan to Bion PA 1, LLC ("PA1"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, for the initial Kreider Farms project ("Kreider 1 System").The PADEP issued final permits for the Kreider 1 System (including the credit verification plan) on August 1, 2012 on which date the Company deemed that the Kreider System was 'placed in service'.However, to date liquidity in the Pennsylvania nutrient credit market has been slow to develop significant breadth and depth, which limited liquidity/depth has negatively impacted Bion's business plans and has resulted in challenges to monetizing the nutrient reductions created by PA1's existing Kreider 1 project and Bion's other proposed projects.Additionally, the Company has not made any principal payments, which were to begin in fiscal 2013, and, therefore, the Company has classified the Pennvest Loan as a current liability as of September 30, 2021 .Due to the failure of the PA nutrient reduction credit market to develop, the Company determined that the carrying amount of the property and equipment related to the Kreider 1 project exceeded its estimated future undiscounted cash flows based on certain assumptions regarding timing, level and probability of revenues from sales of nutrient reduction credits and, therefore, PA1 and the Company recorded impairments related to the value of the Kreider 1 assets of $1,750,000 and $2,000,000 at June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014 , respectively.This impairment reflects management's judgment that the salvage value of the Kreider 1 assets roughly equals PA1's contractual obligations related to the Kreider 1 system, including expenses related to decommissioning of the Kreider 1 system.The facility has not been commercially operated for approximately six years and has generated zero income.The Company anticipates additional communication with Pennvest on this matter during the current year.The economics (potential revenues, profitability and continued operation) of the Kreider 1 System were based almost entirely on the long-term sale of nutrient (nitrogen and/or phosphorus) reduction credits to meet the requirements of the Chesapeake Bay environmental clean-up.We reiterate that there is no assurance, especially in the extremely unsettled capital markets that presently exist for companies such as Bion, that the Company will be able to obtain the funds that it needs to stay in business, finance its Projects and other activities, continue its technology development and/or to successfully develop its business.To date the Company has experienced direct impacts in various areas including but without limitation: i) government ordered shutdowns which have slowed the Company's research and development projects and other initiatives, ii) shifted focus of state and federal governments which is likely to negatively impact the Company's legislative initiatives in Pennsylvania and Washington D. C ., iii) strains and uncertainties in both the equity and debt markets which have made discussion and planning of funding of the Company and its initiatives and projects with investment bankers, banks and potential strategic partners more tenuous, iv) strains and uncertainties in the agricultural sector and markets have made discussion and planning more difficult as future industry conditions are now more difficult to assess and predict, v) constraints due to problems experienced in the global industrial supply chain, vi) due to the age and health of our core management team, all of whom are age 70 or older and have had one or more existing health issues, the Covid-19 pandemic places the Company at greater risk than was previously the case (to a higher degree than would be the case if the Company had a larger, deeper and/or younger core management team), and vii) there almost certainly will be other unanticipated consequences for the Company as a result of the current pandemic emergency and its aftermath.The first commercial activity in this area is represented by our agreement with Kreider Farms ("KF"), pursuant to which the Kreider 1 system to treat KF's dairy waste streams to reduce nutrient releases to the environment while generating marketable nutrient credits and renewable energy was designed, constructed and entered full-scale operation during 2011.On January 26, 2009 the Board of the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Investment Authority ("Pennvest") approved a $7.75 million loan to Bion PA 1, LLC ("PA1"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, for the initial Kreider Farms project ("Kreider 1 System").The PADEP issued final permits for the Kreider 1 System (including the credit verification plan) on August 1, 2012 on which date the Company deemed that the Kreider System was 'placed in service'.However, to date liquidity in the Pennsylvania nutrient credit market has been slow to develop significant breadth and depth, which limited liquidity/depth has negatively impacted Bion's business plans and has resulted in challenges to monetizing the nutrient reductions created by PA1's existing Kreider 1 project and Bion's other proposed projects.Additionally, the Company has not made any principal payments, which were to begin in fiscal 2013, and, therefore, the Company has classified the Pennvest Loan as a current liability as of September 30, 2021 .Due to the failure of the PA nutrient reduction credit market to develop, the Company determined that the carrying amount of the property and equipment related to the Kreider 1 project exceeded its estimated future undiscounted cash flows based on certain assumptions regarding timing, level and probability of revenues from sales of nutrient reduction credits and, therefore, PA1 and the Company recorded impairments related to the value of the Kreider 1 assets of $1,750,000 and $2,000,000 at June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014 , respectively.This impairment reflects management's judgment that the salvage value of the Kreider 1 assets roughly equals PA1's contractual obligations related to the Kreider 1 system, including expenses related to decommissioning of the Kreider 1 system.The facility has not been commercially operated for approximately six years and has generated zero income.The Company anticipates additional communication with Pennvest on this matter during the current year.The economics (potential revenues, profitability and continued operation) of the Kreider 1 System are based almost entirely on the long-term sale of nutrient (nitrogen and/or phosphorus) reduction credits to meet the requirements of the Chesapeake Bay environmental clean-up.The Company is currently maintaining some equipment at the Kreider 1 System in a limited manner.

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