When To Apply Fertilizer For Maize
- November 2, 2021
Because this N is applied well ahead of major crop uptake, it too is at risk of loss if warm soil temperatures and excessive rainfall occur.Depending on the time of application relative to planting, as well as expected weather conditions (determined by climate history) a nitrification inhibitor may also be advantageous.However, there are limits on how much N can be applied at planting, due to concerns over effects on seed germination, as well as how much material can be reasonably carried on the planter.If warm temperatures and moderate rainfall result in high N mineralization and an N-sufficient crop, sidedress rates can be reduced.This process of determining crop sufficiency or need can be aided by various methods of soil testing or plant sensing (Shanahan, 2011). .
Time of Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer to Maize at Samaru, Nigeria
This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.Effects of Previous Crop on Yield and Nitrogen Response of Maize at Samaru, Nigeria.Water Movement and Nitrate Leaching in a Nigerian Savanna Soil.Effects of Rate and Time of Nitrogen Application on Yields of Cotton in Northern Nigeria.Effect of rate and time of fertiliser nitrogen application on total plant, shoot, and root yields of maize (Zea maysL.).New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Vol.Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer use under rainfed maize and irrigated wheat at Kadawa, northern Nigeria.Ogunlela, VB Lombin, GL and Abed, SM 1982.Growth response, yield and yield components of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) as affected by rates and time of nitrogen application in the Nigerian savannah.The effect of density and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize (Zea maysL.).Agronomic Performance and Nutrient Concentration of Maize (Zea mays L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen Fertilization and Plant Density.Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, Vol.Nitrogen efficiency of urea and calcium ammonium nitrate for maize (Zea mays) in humid and subhumid regions of Nigeria.how much fertilizer needed: Case study of Sierra Leone.Pasture floristic composition in different Eucalyptus species plantations in some parts of northern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria.Alleviating Soil Fertility Constraints to Increased Crop Production in West Africa.Alleviating Soil Fertility Constraints to Increased Crop Production in West Africa.Effect of time of application and nitrate: ammonium ratio on maize grain yield, grain N concentration and soil mineral N concentration in a semi-arid region.On-Farm Evaluation of Nitrate-Nitrogen Dynamics Under Maize in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria.Fertilizer-N use efficiency and nitrate pollution of groundwater in developing countries.Response of maize to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers in the savanna zones of Nigeria.Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. .
Application of Starter Fertilizers in Corn
No-till corn may respond to starter fertilizer more than conventional tillage corn systems as no-till soils may retain more moisture and have cooler soil temperatures than conventionally-tilled soils.Placing starter fertilizer near the seed may help increase early growth in corn, which may or may not translate into increased potential yield. .
Economic incentives to use fertilizer on maize under differing agro
Model 2 included agro-ecological conditions at both plot and village levels, adding soil type and rainfall indicators.The F-statistic of the first-stage regression (shown in the supplementary material) was highly significant (F-statistic = 22.90; Prob > F = 0.0000).Footnote 7 The instrument, cotton cooperative membership, was strongly correlated with the potentially endogenous variable, nitrogen application rate (coefficient = 10.62 with a p value = 0.000).This is consistent with previous research which showed that farmers cultivating in agro-ecological zones characterized by low rainfall and soil fertility, as in many parts of Burkina Faso, have higher incentives to adopt these practices in order to increase both land quality and crop productivity (Sawadogo and Kini 2011).Introducing agro-ecological conditions at the village level, we found positive marginal effects of good and excellent soil types on maize yields.As discussed by Koo and Cox (2014), the variability of total rainfall during the maize growing season is lower in regions characterized by limited water availability.In our results, without N application, yields were significantly higher in villages characterized by less variability in rainfall and smaller amounts of rain.This may be explained by the fact that it is the availability of moisture over the cropping season, rather than the amount of rainfall, that most determines yields.After controlling for agro-ecological conditions at the field plot and village levels, a statistically significant yield differential was found between the Sudano-Sahelian and Sudanian zones.Plots that were located farther away from the residence had significantly lower yields, perhaps because they are more difficult to reach with manure and fertilizers.Compared to inorganic fertilizers, nutrients in manure are less concentrated and become available over a period of months or years rather than in a few days to weeks (Whiting et al. 2014).Having access to credit last year and more recent contact with extension services were negatively associated with maize yields.Likewise, Xu et al. (2009) found that farmers receiving advice from extension agents can be less likely to adopt organic manure and thus, their yields are lower.In Burkina Faso, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security recommends 100 kg/ha of urea and 150 kg/ha of NPK compound fertilizer on maize, regardless of the agro-ecological conditions (MA/SG 2001).Our data show that the quantity of N applied to field plots (conditional on use) falls short nationwide, with an average of 38 kg/ha.The gap is even more striking when we consider plots with no fertilizer applied, reducing the nationwide average to 16 kg N/ha.However, the magnitude of the estimated coefficient for N-squared is similar to that estimated in previous studies based on farm household survey data.Footnote 9 Our result is consistent with evidence that shows continuous depletion of soil fertility in this region (see Stoorvogel et al. 1993; World Bank 1996 cited by Gruhn et al.
2000; Henao et al. 1992).These are expected values calculated at variable means, although the VCR does vary with position on the fertilizer response curve.Given the nature of farming in Burkina Faso, where crops depend entirely on rainfall, there is uncertainty in regard to the outcome of fertilizer use.Often, in addition to the poor condition of roads and transport distances, illicit taxation and bribery are reported (Holtzman et al.
2013).These rates are higher than those previously estimated by Koussoube and Nauges in Burkina Faso (65–119 kg/ha of N) but similar to those in Ghana (130–256 kg/ha of N). .
Fates and Use Efficiency of Nitrogen Fertilizer in Maize Cropping
In addition, if the measurement of 15 N in harvested crops and soil continues after one growing season, 15 N in soil retention is likely to decrease over time, because it may be lost to the environment after the growing season or in the following seasons, or it may be taken up by crops in following seasons.Besides SOC, we also found significant impacts of maize yield and N uptake on 15 N fate.Factors or practices that contribute to the increase of maize yield and N uptake may indirectly increase 15 N recovery in uptake, such as hybrid improvements, advanced cultivation, optimized nutrient management (Figure 3 ).This is verified by the higher soil 15 N retention in maize cropping system in China than in North America (Table 1 ).TMPs, even though designed for improving N management (e.g., following the “4R” fertilizer management principles with right rate, right source, right timing and right place), have variable impacts on fertilizer-N fate and multiple goals of sustainable crop production (e.g., yield or N uptake promotion, NUE 15N improvement and loss reduction) (T. Li et al., 2019).However, in the practice, enhanced efficiency N fertilizers may not improve NUE and crop yield because their impacts may be constrained to particular environmental conditions (T. Li et al., 2018, 2019).For example, in this study, the use of enhanced efficiency N fertilizers had no significant enhancement on grain yield, N uptake, fraction of aboveground N derived from fertilizer, and NUE 15N (Figure 2).Using other forms of N fertilizer (mainly ammonium-based fertilizer) rather than urea, significantly reduced NUE 15N and increased unrecovered 15N% based on the current eight observations (Figure 2).Deep placement of N fertilizer showed a tendency to improve yield (9%), fraction of aboveground N derived from fertilizer (22%), NUE 15N (29%) and retention (18%), and to reduce unrecovered 15N by 26% (from 51 to 38 kg N ha−1), but the confidence intervals overlapped with zero for all of these indices except for the unrecovered proportion (Figure 2, Table S2).Optimizing the timing and amount of fertilizer application, such as reducing the basal fertilizer-N proportion and increasing the splitting frequency of fertilizer-N application, can avoid excess fertilization as base fertilizer and increase N uptake along with crop growth (F. Zhang et al., 2012).As a result, NUE 15N was increased and N loss was reduced (Xia et al., 2017).However, in this study, organic additions did not change soil 15N retention and 15N unrecovered significantly, though the contribution of fertilizer-N to crop N and NUE 15N were significantly reduced.Reducing fertilizer-N rate improved NUE 15N , while increasing fertilizer-N rate reduced NUE 15N due to the “law of diminishing return” regarding the yield response to fertilizer-N input (X.
Zhang, Mauzerall et al., 2015).However, the increase of N uptake was not significant under the practices of low and high levels of increasing fertilizer-N rate, suggesting that the yield response is close to the threshold N rate and more N supply does not benefit N uptake.However, in North China, the low reduction in fertilizer-N rate increased both N-uptake and NUE 15N significantly under the condition of decreased fraction of aboveground N derived from fertilizer, which implied that the conventional N fertilization rate might exceed the threshold N rate for maximum yield (Ju et al., 2009).Based on a meta-analysis, Xia et al. (2017) found N management practices in 376 nonlabeling studies were all effective in decreasing reactive N losses and increasing grain yield in China.As for enhanced efficiency N fertilizers, other forms of N fertilizer, no-tillage or reduced tillage, co-application of N fertilizer and organic materials, increasing fertilizer-N rate, and reducing fertilizer-N rate, the sustainable N management goals of yield increase, NUE 15N increase, and N loss reduction were not achieved simultaneously in this data set.(2) In contrast, the nonlabeling trial method is limited in identifying the contributions of soil N and management practices from previous seasons and the current season.
Sweet Corn: Pollination & Fertilizer
Sweet Corn: Pollinating and Fertilizing.Hand pollination, however, is only required for very small plots of corn or if just one to three rows of corn are planted.How Corn is Pollinated.Each plant can self-pollinate.Pollen does not have to go from one plant’s tassel to a different plant’s silk.They also can pollinate from one plant to another.(See our how to choose the best sweet corn article to learn the importance of isolating plants to prevent cross-pollination of different varieties.).Silks - The sticky silks grow 2.5 to 4 centimeters (3/4 to 1 1/2 inches) per day in optimum conditions, starting at the base of the ear.After fertilization, the silks dry out and turn brown.In about 24 hours, you will know if your corn has been pollinated because the silks will begin to dry out and turn from white to brown.Fertilizing Sweet Corn for Best Growth.Before Planting Corn Seeds.Mulch helps conserve water in the soil and helps ensure consistent soil moisture levels that corn plants need.Fertilize the plants again when they are about 10 inches tall.Add nitrogen one last time once the sweet corn ears begin producing silk, using 46-0-0 nitrogen fertilizer according to product application directions.Unlike general all-purpose fertilizers such as a 15-15-15 product used on lawns, a 16-16-8 fertilizer has a higher level of nitrogen and phosphorus compared to potassium.P - Phosphorus (Phosphate) aids in plant maturity, supports the vigorous development of roots, stems, blossoms, and fruits.Organic Fertilizers.The best all-round organic fertilizer; should also be used with chemical fertilizers.Nitrogen, 6-9%; Phosphorus 2-3%; Potassium 1.5-2%.One of the best organic sources of nitrogen, aids growth of soil organisms.Nitrogen, 7-15%.Nitrogen, 0.6%; phosphorous, 0.15%; potassium, 0.55%; organic matter.Nitrogen, 2.5%; phosphorous, 0.25%; potassium, 1.5%; organic matter.Nitrogen, 0.7; phosphorous, 0.25%, potassium, 0.55%; organic matter.Nitrogen, 4.5%; phosphorous, 3.2%; potassium, 1.3%; low in organic matter.Nitrogen, 2.4%; phosphorous, 1.4%; potassium, 0.6%; organic matter.Nitrogen, 1-2%; phosphorous, 0.75%; potassium, 5%; organic matter.Nitrogen (N).Of all the major plant nutrients, Nitrogen is often the most important deciding factor in plant growth and crop yield.Good phosphorus levels ensure crops will reach their full potential for healthy development of fruit, flowers and seeds.Phosphorus helps to build plant vitality and is of special importance in developing strong root systems that ensures better resistance to root rot diseases.Potassium is a key nutrient in the plant’s tolerance to stresses such as cold-hot temperatures, improves resistance to pests and diseases and is essential for the development of fruits, flowers and seeds.Plants deficient in potassium often develop weak stem and stalks, small fruit and shriveled seeds, along with poor growth and yields.Now that you know pollination and fertilization, go back to our first article in this Guide to make sure you are growing the right variety for your conditions. .
Correctly fertilizing corn, as well as managing soil and growing conditions, ensure you can enjoy a plentiful harvest just 60 to 100 days after planting, depending on the variety.You can grow corn in many types of soil, but make sure it drains well.If possible, do a soil test before planting to ensure the soil is fertile and has a pH level conducive to growing corn.Planting and Fertilizing Corn.Apply fertilizer according to the results of your soil test.If you didn't do a soil test, work a balanced 10-10-10 fertilizer into the soil to a depth of 3 to 4 inches.You can plant all of your corn at once or wait until the first planting grows three to five leaves before planting more seeds.Sidedress the corn when the stalks reach a height of 15 to 18 inches, advises the University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension.While corn needs plenty of fertilizer to grow, too much nitrogen can cause the stalks to fall over, notes the University of Georgia Extension.Follow the results of your soil test and these general guidelines for fertilizing corn to ensure adequate nutrition for the plants.Take care not to damage the roots of the corn plant when removing weeds.After you notice silk strands appear, expect corn to be ready to harvest in approximately three weeks, advises University of Georgia Extension. .
Compound D fertilizers and AN are the most commonly used fertilizers on maize.The crop needs 250 kg/ha of Compound L at planting (AGRITEX, 1982).Fertilizer recommendations, application rates and timing.Compound Rate Rate.Fruit trees Z 400 g/tree J: 300 g/tree In split applications Increase fertilizer according to age and yield Groundnuts L 300 kg/ha Gypsum: 150 kg/ha Over plants at pegging.Inoculants needed Sugar beet Z 300 kg/ha AN: 200 kg/ha at 4 wae2 Lime 3 weeks before planting.Fertilizer rates for crop yield in various agro-ecological zones.AN 100 Maize NR III, IV 2.0 Compound A 200.Gypsum 200 Sorghum (white) NR III, IV, V 0.8 Compound D 50 Rapoko NR III, IV, V 0.8 Compound D 50 Pearl millet 0.8 Compound D 50 Soybeans in NR I/IIA, IIB 1.0 Compound D 50.Groundnuts need 300 kg/ha of Compound L at planting and a top-dressing of gypsum fertilizer at a rate of 150 kg/ha.The most commonly used fertilizers for wheat are Compound D and AN.Cotton fertilizer rates for various yield levels.Smallholders apply 8 percent of their fertilizer on cotton.Table 18 gives the average fertilizer N requirements at different expected yield levels for seed cotton.Fertilizers used for tobacco include Compounds A, B and C. The P 2 O 5 and K 2 O contents in the three fertilizers are the same.NR V produces the bulk of Zimbabwe's sugar cane, under irrigation.Fertilizer application rates in NR V are relatively high.
What Kind of Fertilizer Is Best for Planting Sweet Corn?
Corn (Zea mays) has a rich history as a component of North American and Mexican cuisine.Compost or other organic matter, such as leaves or aged manure, is the best way to improve your soil's texture while also adding nutrients.Experts at Utah State University Cooperative Extension recommend incorporating 2 to 4 inches of composted organic matter before planting sweet corn.Experts at Utah State University Extension recommend applying 2 pounds of 16-16-8 ratio fertilizer for every 100 square feet of planting area. .