When To Apply D Compound Fertilizer To Maize
- October 31, 2021
Compound D fertilizers and AN are the most commonly used fertilizers on maize.The crop needs 250 kg/ha of Compound L at planting (AGRITEX, 1982).Fertilizer recommendations, application rates and timing.Compound Rate Rate.Fruit trees Z 400 g/tree J: 300 g/tree In split applications Increase fertilizer according to age and yield Groundnuts L 300 kg/ha Gypsum: 150 kg/ha Over plants at pegging.Inoculants needed Sugar beet Z 300 kg/ha AN: 200 kg/ha at 4 wae2 Lime 3 weeks before planting.Fertilizer rates for crop yield in various agro-ecological zones.AN 100 Maize NR III, IV 2.0 Compound A 200.Gypsum 200 Sorghum (white) NR III, IV, V 0.8 Compound D 50 Rapoko NR III, IV, V 0.8 Compound D 50 Pearl millet 0.8 Compound D 50 Soybeans in NR I/IIA, IIB 1.0 Compound D 50.Groundnuts need 300 kg/ha of Compound L at planting and a top-dressing of gypsum fertilizer at a rate of 150 kg/ha.The most commonly used fertilizers for wheat are Compound D and AN.Cotton fertilizer rates for various yield levels.Smallholders apply 8 percent of their fertilizer on cotton.Table 18 gives the average fertilizer N requirements at different expected yield levels for seed cotton.Fertilizers used for tobacco include Compounds A, B and C. The P 2 O 5 and K 2 O contents in the three fertilizers are the same.NR V produces the bulk of Zimbabwe's sugar cane, under irrigation.Fertilizer application rates in NR V are relatively high.
Exploring Black Soldier Fly Frass as Novel Fertilizer for ...
Here, we evaluate the comparative performance of BSFFF and commercial organic fertilizer (SAFI) on maize (H513) production.Maize grown in plots treated with BSFFF had the tallest plants and highest chlorophyll concentrations.Likewise, application of BSFFF at 100 kg N ha -1 increased maize N uptake by 76% and 29% compared to SAFI and urea, respectively.The agronomic N use efficiency (AE N ) of maize treated with 2.5 t ha -1 of BSFFF was 2.4 times higher than the value achieved using an equivalent rate of SAFI.Also, the AE N of maize grown using 30 kg N ha -1 was 27% and 116% higher than the values obtained using equivalent rates of SAFI and urea fertilizers, respectively.Our findings demonstrate that BSFFF is a promising and sustainable alternative to commercial fertilizers for increased maize production.High levels of hunger and food insecurity dominate most regions of Africa, and the situation continues to worsen due to increasing soil degradation (FAO, 2017).Forty percent of soils in SSA are low in nutrient stocks, with 25% affected by aluminum toxicity, 18% prone to leaching and 8.5% characterized by phosphorus fixation (Tully et al., 2015).Most soils in SSA are deficient in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) (Cobo et al., 2010) while most farm lands in East Africa have negative macronutrient balances (Gachimbi et al., 2005; Ebanyat et al., 2010) and yet, very little (≤ 10 kg ha-1) or no mineral fertilizer is used (FAO, 2017).Like in many SSA countries, most soils in Kenya are low in organic matter, with levels even below the critical value of 3% (Gachimbi et al., 2005), and exhibit high acidity (Keino et al., 2015).Furthermore, uptake and utilization of macronutrient (mostly N, P and K) is affected by the low availability of secondary nutrients [calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulfur (S)] and most micronutrients in soils (Tittonell et al., 2008a; Wortmann et al., 2019).Despite this situation, most farmers do not apply organic matter, which could help to replenish some of the secondary nutrients and micronutrients into the soil through mineralization (Baligar et al., 2001; Grigatti et al., 2015; Ch’Ng et al., 2016).The increasing demand for animal feed through black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) (BSF) mass rearing using organic waste (van Huis, 2013; Makkar et al., 2014) presents an avenue for organic waste management that could also contribute to soil fertility improvement.The frass, which is a byproduct from BSF rearing contains substantial amounts of nutrients (Lalander et al., 2015; Oonincx et al., 2015) that could be useful in crop production if converted into organic fertilizer.The effectiveness of organic fertilizers highly depends on the source, nutrient content, stage of mineralization, and storage method (Rufino et al., 2007; Ebanyat, 2009; Ndambi et al., 2019).For example, nutrient availability in manure is greatly influenced by the source, mineralization status and C/N ratio (Grigatti et al., 2015; Musyoka et al., 2019).Most research efforts on use of insect frass as a fertilizer have been conducted under controlled conditions (Kagata and Ohgushi, 2012; Poveda et al., 2019; Houben et al., 2020).Those that have involved BSF frass (Choi and Hassanzadeh, 2019) have been performed under potted conditions, without assessing the economic yield and nutrient utilization.Most research outputs from greenhouse or potted experiments cannot be directly transferred to field phase without being tested due to variations in production environments.Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the performance of BSF frass fertilizer on nitrogen availability and uptake, growth, yield, and nitrogen use efficiency in maize, to generate information necessary for recommendation of BSF frass fertilizer into existing farming practices.Field experiments were carried out for two seasons (April–September 2019 and October 2019–March 2020) at the Kenyatta University teaching and demonstration farm (1° 10′ 59″ S, 36° 55′ 34″ E) located in Nairobi County, Kenya at an elevation of 1580 m above sea level.During the experiments, daily temperature and rainfall data were sourced from Kenyatta University weather station, located about 0.5 km from the experimental site.Mean daily temperatures of 22°C–29°C and 22°C–28°C were recorded at the experimental site during the short and long rain season, respectively.Cumulative rainfall totals of 252 and 281 mm were received during the short and long rain season experiments, respectively (Figure 1).The BSF frass fertilizer was a product obtained from the feeding of BSF larvae on a substrate made of brewery spent grains (from Kenya Breweries limited) at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe, Nairobi, Kenya).In the first experiment, the BSF frass fertilizer and SAFI were applied singly at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 t ha-1 to determine the most effective rate for crop production.To remove any limitation in the mineral fertilizer and organic fertilizers applied in terms of N rates, inorganic P [supplied as triple super phosphate – TSP (46% P 2 O 5 )] and K [supplied as muriate of potash (60% K 2 O)] were obtained from Kenya Farmers’ Association and applied at uniform rates of 60 kg P ha-1 and 50 kg K ha-1 (Tittonell et al., 2008a).For organic fertilizers treatments, inorganic P and K were applied as top up to the nutrients (P and K) already contained in the dry matter used to supply respective N rates.Biomass amounts and nitrogen uptake were determined at early vegetative, tasseling, silking and maturity (125 DAP) (harvesting) stages.Two plants were randomly selected from each plot, cut at ground level and their fresh weights determined.The soil samples were placed in air-tight polythene bags and carried to the laboratory using cool boxes containing ice blocks to reduce microbial activities during transportation.Apparent N recovery efficiency (ANR N ) was calculated to determine the ability of the plant to acquire the N supplied from different treatments (equation 3).Agro-physiological N efficiency (APE N ) was calculated to determine the economic yield per unit N accumulated from each fertilizer treatment (equation 4).The values of grain yields from the urea fertilizer treatments (0, 30, 60, and 100 kg N ha-1) were used to draw the N response curves (Figure 2).Nitrogen fertilizer equivalence is expressed as kg kg-1 but is mostly converted into percent for comparison purposes (Kimetu et al., 2004; Cavalli et al., 2016; van Middelkoop and Holshof, 2017).(Note: grain yields from black soldier fly (BSF) frass fertilizer were above N response curve in both seasons).The mineral N (nitrate and ammonium) was extracted from organic fertilizers and soil using 0.5 M potassium sulpfate at a ratio of 1:10 (w/v).Thereafter, the entire content of compost-potassium sulfate mixture was shaken for 1 h using an orbital and linear shaker (KOS – 3333/KCS – 3333, MRC, UK) as described above.Plant height, chlorophyll concentration, soil mineral N concentration, and N uptake data were analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model with “lmer” function from the package “lme4” in R statistical software with fertilizer treatment and sampling time as fixed effects, and replication as random effect.Effects of BSF Frass, Commercial Organic, and Urea Fertilizers on Maize Plant Height.The control treatment and plots treated with 2.5 t ha-1 as well as 30 kg N ha-1 supplied using SAFI produced the shortest plants during the two seasons of the experiments.Effects of BSF Frass, Commercial Organic, and Urea Fertilizers on Leaf Chlorophyll Concentration.Highest chlorophyll concentrations (45–61 SPAD values) were achieved at late vegetative stage (55 DAP) during the short rain season.In the short rain season, chlorophyll concentrations for all treatments significantly decreased and reached their lowest values at silking stage.During the long rain season, however, a significant increase in chlorophyll concentrations was observed at both late vegetative and silking stages.Plots treated with BSF frass fertilizer applied at 5 and 7.5 t ha-1, 60 and 100 kg N ha-1 as well as urea fertilizer applied at 100 kg N ha-1 achieved highest chlorophyll levels (83–93 SPAD values) at silking stage compared to other treatments which peaked at late vegetative stage.Plots treated with BSF frass fertilizer at 7.5 t ha-1 produced plants with the highest chlorophyll concentrations, which were 18% (p = 0.02) and 20% (p < 0.01) higher than those achieved using an equivalent rates of SAFI in the short and long rain seasons, respectively (Figures 4A, B).Effects of BSF Frass, Commercial Organic, and Urea Fertilizers on Soil Mineral N Concentration.The interaction of fertilizer treatments and maize growth stages was significant during the short rain season only (p < 0.001) (Table 2).At the early vegetative stage, the mineral N concentration of plots treated with 7.5 t ha-1 of BSF frass fertilizer was 4 (p < 0.01) and 6 times (p < 0.01) higher than those achieved at equivalent rates of SAFI during the short and long rain season, respectively.Table 2 Mineral nitrogen (kg N ha-1) in the top 40 cm of soil treated with different types of fertilizers.The interaction effect of fertilizer types and maize growth stages was significant (p < 0.001) during the long rain season only.Peak mineral N concentration during the short rain season was achieved at tasseling stage (70 DAP) with the highest recorded in plots treated with 7.5 t ha-1 of BSF frass fertilizer.The same treatment had significantly (p < 0.05) higher mineral N concentration at maturity stage compared to plots treated with 7.5 t ha-1 of SAFI.During the long rain season, peak mineral N concentration was attained at early vegetative and silking stages for BSF frass fertilizer and SAFI treatments, respectively.Soil treated with 7.5 t ha-1 BSF frass fertilizer had significantly (p < 0.001) higher mineral N concentration than other treatments at the early vegetative stage.The mineral N concentration in the soil layer 0–20 cm varied significantly at different maize growth stages during the long rain season only (p < 0.05) (Table 3).The mineral N significantly increased to peak levels between vegetative and silking stages before decreasing gradually to the end of the short rain season.During the long rain season, mineral N significantly decreased from initial values to lowest levels at early vegetative stage.Table 3 Mineral nitrogen (kg N ha-1) in the top 40 cm of soil treated with different N fertilizers.The interaction of N fertilizer treatments and maize growth stage was significant during the long rain season only (p < 0.01).Mineral N concentration significantly increased to peak levels (6.2–15.5 kg N ha-1) at tasseling stage, before gradually decreasing toward the end of the short rain season.Similarly, plots treated with 100 kg N ha-1 supplied as urea achieved significantly (p < 0.05) higher mineral N concentration than equivalent rate of SAFI at early vegetative stage during the long rain season.At maturity stage (125 DAP) of the same season, plots treated with 60 kg N ha-1 applied as urea fertilizer had significantly (p < 0.01) higher mineral N concentration than BSF frass and SAFI treatments, except for plots where 100 kg N ha-1 of BSF frass fertilizer was applied.Total P accumulated in maize treated with 5 and 7.5 t ha-1 of BSF frass fertilizer were significantly higher than those of the control treatment in both seasons.A significant (p < 0.001) decrease in N uptake was observed at maturity stage, except for plots treated with 30 and 60 kg N ha-1 supplied using SAFI during the long rain season.Effects of BSF Frass, Commercial Organic, and Urea Fertilizers on Maize Grain and Stover Yields.Maize grain yields did not vary significantly at equivalent rates of the commercial organic and BSF frass fertilizers.Figure 6 Effect of fertilizer types (A, B) and nitrogen rates (C, D) on maize grain yields during the short (A, C) and long rain season (B, D) experiments.Application of BSF frass fertilizer at 7.5 t ha-1 produced the highest maize grain yields during the short (5.4 t ha-1) and long rain season (7.2 t ha-1) which were % and 14% higher than the highest grain yields obtained using SAFI during the short and long rain seasons, respectively, but not significantly different.Grain yield from plots treated with 7.5 t ha-1 of BSF frass fertilizer was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that where 2.5 t ha-1 of SAFI were applied during the short rain season.All plots treated with BSF frass fertilizer produced significantly (p < 0.001) higher grain yields than the control.Likewise, grain yield from maize treated with 100 kg N ha-1 applied as BSF frass fertilizer (6.2 t ha-1) was 7% and 21% higher than those obtained using equivalent rates of urea and SAFI, respectively, during the long rain season.During the long rain season, the highest maize grain yields were 6.2 and 5.1 t ha-1 for BSF frass fertilizer and SAFI, respectively, compared to 5.8 t ha-1 from urea treatment (all applied at 100 kg N ha-1).Application of 2.5 t ha-1 of BSF frass fertilizer increased the AE N of maize by 2.4 and 2.2 times compared to equivalent rate of SAFI during the short and long rain season, respectively.The ANR N of maize treated with 2.5 t ha-1 of BSF frass fertilizer was 1.9 and 4.1 times higher than that achieved by equivalent rate of SAFI during the short and long rain season, respectively.The APE N of maize grown using different types of fertilizers (p < 0.01) and N rates (p < 0.05) varied significantly during the short rain season only (Table 5).Maize treated with 5 t ha-1 applied as SAFI achieved significantly (p < 0.01) higher APE N values than other treatments.During the long rain season, the APE N of maize treated with 5 t ha-1 of SAFI was 16% higher than that achieved using an equivalent rate of BSF frass fertilizer.During the long rain season, APE N values of maize treated with 30 kg N ha-1 of SAFI was 63 and 23% higher than those attained using equivalent rates of urea and BSF frass fertilizer, respectively.The NHI of maize grown using different types of fertilizers varied significantly (p < 0.01) during the short rain season only (Table 5).Also, the NHI of maize treated with 5 t ha-1 of SAFI was 8% higher than that achieved using equivalent rate of BSF frass fertilizer during the long rain season.Effects of Black Soldier Fly Frass, Commercial Organic, and Urea Fertilizers on Maize Growth, Yield, and Nitrogen Use Efficiency.Globally, intensive maize production requires a lot of fertilizer inputs, which are expensive and inaccessible to resource poor farmers, especially in low to middle income countries on top of causing environmental and health challenges (Uzoh et al., 2019).Furthermore, production of mineral fertilizers is high energy consuming (Banaeian and Zangeneh, 2011) and their use in farming is increasingly being regarded as unsustainable.Our findings revealed higher maize growth, nutrient uptake, and grain yields associated with all fertilizer treatments compared to the control (unamended soil).From the results, it can be concluded that treating the soil with fertilizer significantly improved the maize yield and quality in terms of macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium).According to Tittonell et al. (2008b), increasing uptake of phosphorus in the study might have been partly responsible for high nitrogen accumulation observed in maize grown in plots treated with black soldier fly frass fertilizer.Although, potassium has been equally reported to be important in nitrogen absorption and metabolism as well as plant growth (Fageria, 2001), it was taken up in sufficient quantities across all treatments.The observations described above are in line with the report by Kagata and Ohgushi (2012), who also demonstrated that frass fertilizers is of good quality and capable of improving soil nutrient availability, and growth and yield of Brassica rapa L. var.Additional benefits of insect frass fertilizer on soil health for improved drought and salt tolerance, disease suppression, higher crop growth and yield have also been documented by Choi and Hassanzadeh (2019) and Houben et al.
(2020).Remarkably, higher apparent nitrogen recovery and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency values were observed in maize harvested from plots treated with black soldier fly frass fertilizer compared to those from plots treated with commercial fertilizers.Interestingly, one of the major factors limiting the use of organic fertilizers is associated with the high rates of application required (≥ 5 t ha-1) (Mucheru-Muna et al., 2014; Musyoka et al., 2017).Therefore, our findings would encourage a shift in attitude toward embracing the use of black soldier fly frass fertilizer.Nonetheless, further studies to determine the economically optimum rates of black soldier fly frass fertilizers for maize production are warranted.The various types of fertilizers showed considerable influence on maize plant height, chlorophyll concentrations and macronutrients uptake during the short and long rain cropping seasons.However, maize yield and nitrogen use efficiency were improved with the application of black soldier fly frass fertilizer.However, if black soldier fly frass fertilizer should be applied to supply adequate nitrogen for maize production, a rate equivalent to 30 kg N ha-1 is recommended.We can conclude that black soldier fly frass fertilizer can be adopted as an environmentally safe and sustainable option for increased maize production.The senior author, Dennis Beesigamukama, was financially supported by a German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) In-Region Postgraduate Scholarship.The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.The authors would like to thank INSFEED II project technicians at icipe, Kennedy K. Kilel, and Mathew K.
Theuri from Kenyatta University for providing technical support during data collection.Mineralization and n fertilizer equivalent value of composts as assessed by tall fescue (festuca arundinacea).Technical handbook of domestication and production of diptera Black Soldier Fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens, Stratiomyidae.Improving phosphorus availability, nutrient uptake and dry matter production of Zea mays L. on a tropical acid soil using poultry manure biochar and pineapple leaves compost.Nutrient balances in African land use systems across different spatial scales: A review of approaches, challenges and progress.Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda.Efficacy of nutrient management options targeted to heterogeneous soilscapes in the Teso farming system, Uganda.Soil fertility and land productivity: A guide for extension workers in the eastern Africa region (Nairobi, Kenya: English Press Limited).Positive and negative impacts of insect frass quality on soil nitrogen availability and plant growth.Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value of Cattle Slurry in Grassland as Affected by Method and Timing of Application.Enhancing maize productivity and profitability using organic inputs and mineral fertilizer in central Kenya small-hold farms.“Fertilizer Equivalency Values of Organic Materials of Differing Quality,” in Intergrated Plant Nutrient Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: From Concept to Practice (Wallingford, UK: CABI), 367.Critical soil organic carbon range for optimal crop response to mineral Fertiliser nitrogen on a Ferralsol.Effect of organic and conventional farming systems on nitrogen use efficiency of potato, maize and vegetables in the Central highlands of Kenya.Manure as a key resource within smallholder farming systems: Analysing farm-scale nutrient cycling efficiencies with the NUANCES framework.Competing use of organic resources, village-level interactions between farm types and climate variability in a communal area of NE Zimbabwe.The nutritive value of black soldier fly larvae reared on common organic waste streams in Kenya.Yield gaps, nutrient use efficiencies and response to fertilisers by maize across heterogeneous smallholder farms of western Kenya.Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value of Concentrated Liquid Fraction of Separated Pig Slurry Applied to Grassland.
Understanding fertilizer adoption and effectiveness on maize in
Increased fertilizer use will likely be crucial for raising and sustaining farm productivity in Africa, but adoption may be limited by ineffectiveness under certain conditions. .
Effects of Controlled-Release Fertiliser on Nitrogen Use Efficiency in
However, excessive inputs of N will lead to inefficient use and large N losses to the environment, which can adversely affect air and water quality, biodiversity and human health.To examine the effects of controlled-release fertilisers (CRF) on yield, we measured ammonia volatilisation, N use efficiency (NUE) and photosynthetic rate after anthesis in summer maize hybrid cultivar Zhengdan958.In addition, after treatment with CRF, maize exhibited a higher net photosynthetic rate than CCF after anthesis.These results suggest that the increase in NUE in the CRF treatments was generally attributable to the higher photosynthetic rate and lower ammonia volatilisation compared to CCF-treated maize.Releases of nitrous oxide (mainly via the application of N fertiliser) can degrade stratospheric ozone and contribute to global warming .Ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilisation from soil and plants can also aggravate environmental contamination and contribute to acid deposition .However, current grower acceptance is limited due to a lack of experience with CRF performance and its high relative cost .The greatest benefits of switching from CCF to CRF include increased profitability and reductions in the environmental impact of crop production. .
Effects of organic and inorganic manures on maize and their
Effects of organic and inorganic manures on maize and their residual impact on soil physico-chemical properties.Faisal Mahmood1, Imran Khan2,3*, Umair Ashraf4,5 , Tanvir Shahzad1, Sabir Hussain1, Muhammed Shahid6, Muhammad Abid2 , Sami Ullah2.3Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.5Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Cultivation in South China, Ministry of Agriculture.Organic and inorganic nutrients are important for crop productivity and soil health.Present study investigated the effects of organic and inorganic manures on maize and their residual impacts on soil physico-chemical characteristics.Further, a significant and positive correlation (R2= 0.52, 0.91 and 0.55) was observed among maize grain yield and available N, P and K contents, respectively in the soil.Conclusively, integration of inorganic fertilizers with organic manures can be used with optimum rates to improve crop productivity on sustainable basis.Only the USA, China and Brazil contribute 63% to the global maize production whilst Mexico, Argentina, India, Ukraine, Indonesia, France, Canada and South Africa are also major maize producing countries (FAO, 2012).Different management practices are adopted to increase and optimize the maize yields.Therefore, an integrated use of inorganic fertilizers with organic manures is a sustainable approach for efficient nutrient usage which enhances efficiency of the chemical fertilizers while reducing nutrient losses (Schoebitz and Vidal, 2016).Synergistic effects of organic manures with inorganic fertilizers accumulate more total nitrogen in soils (Huang et al., 2007), but sole application of farm yard manure (FYM) resulted in increased yield of maize (Anatoliy and Thelen, 2007), higher SOM content (44%), improved soil porosity (25%) and 16 times more water holding capacity (Gangwar et al., 2006).Ancient farmers used to rely on organic manures only for crops that proved good for soil health but was slow in response on crop yields thus insufficient to meet the food demand of ever increasing population.So, there is a need to draw a mid-way between organic and inorganic extremities that may sustain food availability without deteriorating soil fertility and/or productivity.Keeping all these aspects in consideration, the present study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effects of organic and inorganic manures on growth and yield of maize and to assess their residual impacts on soil properties.The experiment was conducted at Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan (31.25°N latitude, 73.09°E longitude, altitude 184 m).This is a semi-arid region with annual rainfall of 200-250 mm and the maximum and minimum temperature 4.4 °C (in January) and 48 °C (in June) (Ashraf et al., 2016b).Finally harvest index (HI) was calculated as the percentage (%) of grain yield / total plant dry biomass.Growth and yield attributes of maize were substantially affected by organic and inorganic sources of nutrients (Table 3).Unfertilized controlled plots showed the lowest values for growth and yield attributes of maize.Hence, combined application of organic and inorganic nutrient sources improved maize performance than sole application of organic or inorganic fertilizer, nonetheless, PM remained more effective regarding maize growth and yield than FYM and SM.Application of manures (organic or inorganic) alone or in combination reduced the soil pH.Hence, addition of organic manures irrespective to its nature, reduced soil pH.Significant differences among the treatments were observed in soil bulk density as compared to the control.C: N ratio of the soil treated with organic and inorganic manures affected significantly (p≤0.05) (Figure 1c).The lower values of C/N ratio for PM represent its higher N contents than FYM and SM.Residual Impact of organic and inorganic manures on (a) soil pH, (b) Bulk density, and (c) on C:N ratio after crop harvest.Furthermore, maximum N concentration of 0.09% was recorded in T 3 where sheep manure was applied but did not differ statistically from all other treatments except T 2 and T 1 .Application of chemical fertilizers along with organic amendments improved P and K status of soil effectively.Hence, SM proved more effective when applied in combination with chemical fertilizers than FYM and PM but it is dose dependent.A significant positive correlation was found among grain yield and soil total N, P and K contents (R2 = 0.53, 0.91, 0.55), respectively whilst the correlation among grain yield, soil organic carbon (SOC) and C: N ratio was also remained positive but non-significant.Correlation among maize grain yield and soil characteristics affected by organic and inorganic nutrient sources.Undoubtedly, intensive cultivation with extreme use of chemical fertilizers brought agricultural sustainability but on the other hand it also disturbed the agro-ecosystems and polluted soil and water quality to a great extent.So, better management practices in which judicious use of fertilizers with some organic manures can be adopted to enhance crop productivity without/minimum damaging the nature.Here, we studied the individual and integrative effects of organic and inorganic manures on maize productivity and soil properties and found that combined application of both organic and inorganic sources of nutrients improved growth and yield and related attributes of maize (Table 1).Combination of organic manures might have improved the nitrogen use efficiency, micro and macro nutrient recovery and help in P solubilization and its uptake by the plants and enhanced K availability that in turn resulted in better growth and yield of maize.Therefore, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers is considered a good option to enhance nutrient recovery, plant growth and ultimate yield otherwise higher N and P application rates are required to attain better yield in maize (Mubeen et al., 2013).Further, these results are also in concurrence with Negassa et al. (2001) who found that corn yield was increased by 35% when combined (inorganic and organic) nutrients were applied.Shisanya et al.
(2009) also reported similar results with improved growth and yield related attributes in cotton and maize, respectively.Conversely, (Javier and Tabien, 2003) did not found any statistical difference in rice yield in all plots either applied with organic, inorganic or combination of both manures.Low pH value for FYM is very valuable for calcareous soils (Karami et al., 2012).Organic amendments significantly enhanced SOC thus had a considerable effect on soil microbes and nutrient availability and uptake, thus may alter the C: N ratio.Our results showed that SM has higher C: N ratio and lower SOC than FYM and PM.Surface soil organic carbon buildup probably due to the addition of plant residues, root exudates, plant and root biomass in the surface layer that decreased with increased soil depth regardless of the treatment applied (Brar et al., 2013).Regarding nutrient status of the soil, all three organic manures with inorganic fertilizers improved plant growth and yield with a significant improvement in NPK contents of the soil that affirmed enhanced nutrient use efficiency in the presence of organic manures.Application of organic amendments improved soil N, P and K concentrations when applied with inorganic fertilizers (Hao et al., 2008).Organic manures have more beneficial effects on soil quality than inorganic fertilizers thereby improving nutrient release and their availability to the plants (Birkhofer et al., 2008).The strong positive correlations found between soil NPK status and the grain yield indicates that the organic matter amendments induced direct increase and enhanced cycling of these nutrients.These results are in confirmatory with Lima et al. (2009) who stated that incorporation of organic manures improves soil physico-chemical properties that may have a direct or indirect effect on plant growth and yield attributes.In crux, application of organic manures has significant influence on maize productivity and soil physico-chemical properties.Manure efficacy regarding morphological indices of maize was: PM ˃ SM ˃ FYM when applied with chemical fertilizers.Effect of poultry manure on soil physical and chemical properties, growth and grain yield of sorghum in Southwest, Nigeria.Effect of winter wheat crop residue on no-till corn growth and development.Microbial biomass and activity in a Brazilian soil plus untreated and composted textile sludge.Maize growth, yield formation and water-nitrogen usage in response to varied irrigation and nitrogen supply under semi-arid climate.Consequences of varied planting geometry and early post emergence herbicides for crop-weed interventions in rice under semi-arid climate.Effect of integrated use of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on soil physical properties and productivity of soybean.Birkhofer, K., Bezemer, T.M., Bloem, J., Bonkowski, M., Christensen, S., Dubois, D., Ekelund, F., Fließach, A., Gunst, L., Hedlund, K., Ma¨der, P., Mikola, J., Robin, C., Seta¨la, H., Tatin-Froux, F., Van Der Putten, W.H., Scheu, S.
2008.Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity.Carbon and nitrogen pools in different aggregates of a Chinese Mollisol as influenced by long-term fertilization.Alternative tillage and crop residue management in wheat after rice in sandy loam soils of Indo-Gengetic plains.Temporal and spatial variability of soil organic matter and total nitrogen in an agricultural ecosystem as affected by farming practices.Effects of long-term fertilization on corn productivity and its sustainability in an Ultisol of southern China.Effect of manure application on crop yield and soil chemical properties in a long-term field trial of semi-arid Kenya.Soil enzymes and biological activity at different levels of organic matter stability.Impact of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on the Growth, Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) Fodder in Pakistan.Determination of optimum FYM and NP fertilizers for maize on farmers’ field.Influence of land use on organic carbon pool and chemical properties of Vertic Cambisols in central and southern Italy.Nitrogen recovery in soils amended with organic manures combined with inorganic fertilizers.Organic amendments affect biochemical properties of a subtemperate soil of the Indian Himalayas.Microbial consortium and pig slurry to improve chemical properties of degraded soil and nutrient plant uptake.Contribution of exudates, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and litter depositions to the rhizosphere priming effect induced by grassland species.Availability and surface runoff of phosphorus from compost amended mid-Atlantic soils: master,s thesis, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA. [ Links ].Effect of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on soil mineral nitrogen and maize yields in central highlands of Kenya.Effect of solitary and integrated use of poultry manure and fertilizer phosphorous on the dynamics of P availability in different soils.