What Are The Names Of Inorganic Fertilizers
Inorganic Fertilizer

What Are The Names Of Inorganic Fertilizers

  • October 30, 2021

Multinutrient formulas include complete and balanced fertilizers, which contain basic nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, as well as secondary and micronutrients such as calcium, magnesium, boron and manganese.The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contained in both complete and balanced fertilizers is indicated by three numbers on the package.Other types of inorganic fertilizers include slow-release formulas.Inorganic potassium fertilizers include potassium sulfate and potassium nitrate, as well as muriate of potash, also known as potassium chloride.If a plant is sensitive to chloride, potassium sulfate, also known as sulfate of potash, is a better choice, as it does not contain chloride.Potassium nitrate is easy to apply, because it does not pull moisture from the air, but it does slightly increase the pH of the soil upon application.Inorganic phosphorus fertilizers such as rock phosphate remain in the soil years after the initial application. .

Types of Inorganic Fertilizers

Types of Inorganic Fertilizers

Types of Inorganic Fertilizers

Many of the commonly available inorganic fertilizers are described below, and their analyses are summarized in Appendixes, D, E, amd F.Although orthophosphate’s negative charge prevents it from being attracted by the soil’s cation exchange capacity (CEC), it does react strongly in the soil, primarily with the large amount of iron and aluminum naturally in the soil, to form products that are very insoluble and thus unavailable to plants.There are numerous sources of calcium, magnesium, and sulfur for fertilizing grapevines.In addition, materials such as bone meal, wood ash, manures and sludge can contain adequate amounts of these elements.Chelates of zinc, manganese, iron, and copper have become standard products for foliar application in many vineyards.Chelating agents for various micronutrient metals include EDTA, HEEDTA, NTA, DTPA, and EDDHA.EDTA is the most common synthetic chelating agent and is used for both soil and foliar applied nutrients. .

Fertilizer

Fertilizer

Fertilizer

[1] For most modern agricultural practices, fertilization focuses on three main macro nutrients: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K) with occasional addition of supplements like rock dust for micronutrients.Farmers apply these fertilizers in a variety of ways: through dry or pelletized or liquid application processes, using large agricultural equipment or hand-tool methods.Historically fertilization came from natural or organic sources: compost, animal manure, human manure, harvested minerals, crop rotations and byproducts of human-nature industries (i.e. fish processing waste, or bloodmeal from animal slaughter).However, starting in the 19th century, after innovations in plant nutrition, an agricultural industry developed around synthetically created fertilizers.This transition was important in transforming the global food system, allowing for larger-scale industrial agriculture with large crop yields.The use of fertilizer has also led to a number of direct environmental consequences: agricultural runoff which leads to downstream effects like ocean dead zones and waterway contamination, soil microbiome degradation,[3] and accumulation of toxins in ecosystems.Founded in 1812, Mirat , producer of manures and fertilizers, is claimed to be the oldest industrial business in Salamanca (Spain).Egyptians, Romans, Babylonians, and early Germans are all recorded as using minerals or manure to enhance the productivity of their farms.[1] The science of plant nutrition started well before the work of German chemist Justus von Liebig although his name is most mentioned.Nicolas Théodore de Saussure and scientific colleagues at the time were quick to disprove the simplications of Justus von Liebig.There was a complex scientific understanding of plant nutrition, where the role of humus and organo-mineral interactions were central, and which was in line with more recent discoveries from 1990 onwards.[8] Prominent scientists on whom Justus von Liebig drew were Carl Ludwig Sprenger and Hermann Hellriegel.A factory based on the process was built in Rjukan and Notodden in Norway, combined with the building of large hydroelectric power facilities.The Haber process produces ammonia (NH 3 ) from methane (CH 4 ) gas and molecular nitrogen (N 2 ).[14] After World War II, Nitrogen production plants that had ramped up for war-time bomb manufacturing were pivoted towards agriculture uses.The development of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer has significantly supported global population growth — it has been estimated that almost half the people on the Earth are currently fed as a result of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use.The second mode by which some fertilizers act is to enhance the effectiveness of the soil by modifying its water retention and aeration.three main macronutrients: Nitrogen (N): leaf growth Phosphorus (P): Development of roots, flowers, seeds, fruit; Potassium (K): Strong stem growth, movement of water in plants, promotion of flowering and fruiting;.micronutrients: copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), boron (B).Only some bacteria and their host plants (notably legumes) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ) by converting it to ammonia.Phosphate is required for the production of DNA and ATP, the main energy carrier in cells, as well as certain lipids.Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), such as species of Nitrosomonas, oxidize ammonia to nitrite, a process termed nitrification.[21] Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, especially Nitrobacter, oxidize nitrite to nitrate, which is extremely mobile and is a major cause of eutrophication.Urea is another popular source of nitrogen, having the advantage that it is solid and non-explosive, unlike ammonia and ammonium nitrate, respectively.A few percent of the nitrogen fertilizer market (4% in 2007)[23] has been met by calcium ammonium nitrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 • NH 4 • 10H 2 O)."Single superphosphate" (SSP) consists of 14–18% P 2 O 5 , again in the form of Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 , but also phosphogypsum (CaSO 4 • 2H 2 O).NPK ratings consist of three numbers separated by dashes (e.g., 10-10-10 or 16-4-8) describing the chemical content of fertilizers.Iron presents special problems because it converts to insoluble (bio-unavailable) compounds at moderate soil pH and phosphate concentrations.(Mt pa) China 18.7 3.0 India 11.9 N/A[31] U.S.

9.1 4.7 France 2.5 1.3 Germany 2.0 1.2 Brazil 1.7 0.7 Canada 1.6 0.9 Turkey 1.5 0.3 UK 1.3 0.9 Mexico 1.3 0.3 Spain 1.2 0.5 Argentina 0.4 0.1.[23] In this energy-intensive process, natural gas (CH 4 ) usually supplies the hydrogen, and the nitrogen (N 2 ) is derived from the air.Deposits of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) (Chilean saltpeter) are also found in the Atacama desert in Chile and was one of the original (1830) nitrogen-rich fertilizers used.These minerals are converted into water-soluble phosphate salts by treatment with sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) or phosphoric acids (H 3 PO 4 ).[34] In the nitrophosphate process or Odda process (invented in 1927), phosphate rock with up to a 20% phosphorus (P) content is dissolved with nitric acid (HNO 3 ) to produce a mixture of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ).Potash is soluble in water, so the main effort in producing this nutrient from the ore involves some purification steps; e.g., to remove sodium chloride (NaCl) (common salt).Organic fertilizers can also describe commercially available and frequently packaged products that strive to follow the expectations and restrictions adopted by “organic agriculture” and ”environmentally friendly" gardening – related systems of food and plant production that significantly limit or strictly avoid the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.It is an immature form of coal and improves the soil by aeration and absorbing water but confers no nutritional value to the plants.Organic fertilizers such as composts and manures may be distributed locally without going into industry production, making actual consumption more difficult to quantify.The most widely used solid inorganic fertilizers are urea, diammonium phosphate and potassium chloride.For fertilizer use, granules are preferred over prills because of their narrower particle size distribution, which is an advantage for mechanical application.During summer, urea is often spread just before or during rain to minimize losses from volatilization (a process wherein nitrogen is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia gas).Drilling must not occur on contact with or close to seed, due to the risk of germination damage.In grain and cotton crops, urea is often applied at the time of the last cultivation before planting.Nitrification inhibitors (also known as nitrogen stabilizers) suppress the conversion of ammonia into nitrate, an anion that is more prone to leaching.[42] Urease inhibitors are used to slow the hydrolytic conversion of urea into ammonia, which is prone to evaporation as well as nitrification.[48] Agricultural and chemical minerals are very important in industrial use of fertilizers, which is valued at approximately $200 billion.[49] Potash is produced in Canada, Russia and Belarus, together making up over half of the world production.[50] Conservative estimates report 30 to 50% of crop yields are attributed to natural or synthetic commercial fertilizers.Data on the fertilizer consumption per hectare arable land in 2012 are published by The World Bank.[54] The diagram below shows fertilizer consumption by the European Union (EU) countries as kilograms per hectare (pounds per acre).This figure equates to 151 kg of fertilizers consumed per ha arable land on average by the EU countries.The large growing consumption of fertilizers can affect soil, surface water, and groundwater due to dispersion of mineral use.This waste takes the form of impure, useless, radioactive solid called phosphogypsum.The main contributor to eutrophication is phosphate, which is normally a limiting nutrient; high concentrations promote the growth of cyanobacteria and algae, the demise of which consumes oxygen.The nitrogen-rich compounds found in fertilizer runoff are the primary cause of serious oxygen depletion in many parts of oceans, especially in coastal zones, lakes and rivers.The resulting lack of dissolved oxygen greatly reduces the ability of these areas to sustain oceanic fauna.[63] As of 2006, the application of nitrogen fertilizer is being increasingly controlled in northwestern Europe[64] and the United States.[65][66] If eutrophication can be reversed, it may take decades[citation needed] before the accumulated nitrates in groundwater can be broken down by natural processes.[67] High application rates of nitrogen-containing fertilizers combined with the high water solubility of nitrate leads to increased runoff into surface water as well as leaching into groundwater, thereby causing groundwater pollution.[68][69][70] The excessive use of nitrogen-containing fertilizers (be they synthetic or natural) is particularly damaging, as much of the nitrogen that is not taken up by plants is transformed into nitrate which is easily leached.Nitrate levels above 10 mg/L (10 ppm) in groundwater can cause 'blue baby syndrome' (acquired methemoglobinemia).[76] The phosphate rock used in their manufacture can contain as much as 188 mg/kg cadmium[77] (examples are deposits on Nauru[78] and the Christmas islands[79]).[90][91][92] Where high annual rates of phosphorus fertilizer are used, this can result in uranium-238 concentrations in soils and drainage waters that are several times greater than are normally present.[91][93] However, the impact of these increases on the risk to human health from radinuclide contamination of foods is very small (less than 0.05 mSv/y).Steel industry wastes, recycled into fertilizers for their high levels of zinc (essential to plant growth), wastes can include the following toxic metals: lead[96] arsenic, cadmium,[96] chromium, and nickel.These highly water-soluble fertilizers are used in the plant nursery business and are available in larger packages at significantly less cost than retail quantities.Some inexpensive retail granular garden fertilizers are made with high purity ingredients.Attention has been addressed to the decreasing concentrations of elements such as iron, zinc, copper and magnesium in many foods over the last 50–60 years.[101] Although improved crop yields resulting from NPK fertilizers are known to dilute the concentrations of other nutrients in plants,[100][102] much of the measured decline can be attributed to the use of progressively higher-yielding crop varieties that produce foods with lower mineral concentrations than their less-productive ancestors.Fertilizers are, in fact, more likely to solve trace mineral deficiency problems than cause them: In Western Australia deficiencies of zinc, copper, manganese, iron and molybdenum were identified as limiting the growth of broad-acre crops and pastures in the 1940s and 1950s.[106] Soils in Western Australia are very old, highly weathered and deficient in many of the major nutrients and trace elements.High levels of fertilizer may cause the breakdown of the symbiotic relationships between plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi.The greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are produced during the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizer.[114][needs update] Nitrogen fertilizer can be converted by soil bacteria to nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas.[115] Nitrous oxide emissions by humans, most of which are from fertilizer, between 2007 and 2016 have been estimated at 7 million tonnes per year,[116] which is incompatible with limiting global warming to below 2C.It has a global warming potential 296 times larger than an equal mass of carbon dioxide and it also contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion.These emissions contribute to global climate change as methane is a potent greenhouse gas. .

Inorganic fertilizers (Mineral Fertilizer)

Inorganic fertilizers (Mineral Fertilizer)

Inorganic fertilizers (Mineral Fertilizer)

Fertilizers typically provide, in varying proportions, the three major plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium), the secondary plant nutrients (calcium, sulfur, magnesium), and sometimes trace elements (or micronutrients) with a role in plant nutrition: boron, chlorine, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and molybdenum.Inorganic fertilizers (Mineral Fertilizer).FERTILIZERS can be divided into macronutrients or micronutrients based on their concentations in plant dry matter.The macronutrients are consumed in larger quantities and normally present as whole number or tenths of percentages in plant tissues.An 18−51−20 fertiliser therefore contains, by weight, 18% elemental nitrogen (N), 22% elemental phosphorus (P) and 16% elemental potassium (K).In general, agricultural fertilizers contain only one or two macronutrients.Many controlled release fertilizers are intended to be applied approximately every 3-6 months, depending on watering, growth rates, and other conditions, whereas water-soluble fertilizers must be applied at least every 1-2 weeks and can be applied as often as every watering if sufficiently dilute.Chemist Justus von Liebig (in the 19th century) contributed greatly to understanding the role of inorganic compounds in plant nutrition and devised the concept of Liebig's barrel to illustrate the significance of inadequate concentrations of essential nutrients.Nitrogen fertilizer is often synthesized using the Haber-Bosch process, which produces ammonia.This ammonia is applied directly to the soil or used to produce other compounds, notably ammonium nitrate, a dry, concentrated product.Organic fertilizers.Naturally occurring minerals such as mine rock phosphate, sulfate of potash and limestone are also considered Organic Fertilizers.Then there is the matter of how effective they are at promoting plant growth, chemical soil test results aside.Since the majority of nitrogen supplying organic fertilizers contain insoluble nitrogen and are slow release fertilizers their effectiveness can be greater than conventional nitrogen fertilzers.Organics also have the advantage of avoiding certain long-term problems associated with the regular heavy use of artificial fertilizers:.This results in prohibitive transportation and application costs, especially where the agriculture is practiced a long distance from the source of the organic fertilizer.In practice a compromise between the use of artificial and organic fertilizers is common, typically by using inorganic fertilizers supplemented with the application of organics that are readily available such as the return of crop residues or the application of manure.Some approved fertilizers may be inorganic, naturally occurring chemical compounds, e.g. minerals...When prolonged algae blooms occur over many years, the effect is a process called eutrophication.It is also possible to over-apply organic fertilizers.However: their nutrient content, their solubility, and their release rates are typically much lower than chemical fertilizers, partially because by their nature, most organic fertilizers also provide increased physical and biological storage mechanisms to soils.For these reasons, it is recommended that knowledge of the nutrient content of the soil and nutrient requirements of the crop are carefully balanced with application of nutrients in inorganic fertiliser especially.

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4 Different Types and Forms of Fertilizers

4 Different Types and Forms of Fertilizers

4 Different Types and Forms of Fertilizers

Using your own compost can help grow your garden!For successful short-term growth, determine what nutrient your plant needs and use an inorganic fertilizer with nutrient.Both organic and inorganic fertilizers have sources of nitrogen in them.Phosphorous is a nutrient that plants need continuously.Plants with a phosphorous deficiency will experience stunted growth.Phosphorous is long-lasting and slow acting.Potassium will help your plants to grow deeper and stronger roots.The when and how of planting this fertilizer will depend on what you’re are planting. .

Chemical fertilizers: Examples, advantages and disadvantages

Chemical fertilizers: Examples, advantages and disadvantages

Chemical fertilizers: Examples, advantages and disadvantages

A fertilizer is a natural or synthetic, chemical-based substance containing one or more nutrients essential for enhancement of plant growth and soil fertility.Nitrogenous fertilizers are the nitrogen-containing organic substances that supply the nutrition of nitrogen to the plants.Nitrate and ammonium fertilizers: e.g.Ammonium phosphate.Ammonium hydrogen phosphate.Potassium fertilizers are the potassium-containing organic substances that supply the nutrition of potassium to the plants.Some Important Chemical Fertilizers.Calcium Ammonium Nitrate [Ca (N0 3 ) 2 NH 4 NO]:.This is a nitrogenous fertilizer which is directly absorbed by the plants.Urea is the most important nitrogenous fertilizer because of its high N content (46%N).Calcium Cyanamide (also called Nitrolim) is a chemical compound used as fertilizers.This fertilizer is used before introducing seed into the soil but never used for the growth purposes of the crops.Calcium nitrate [Ca (N0 3 ) 2 ]:.Advantages and Disadvantages of Chemical Fertilizers:.The leaching away of chemical fertilizers pollutes the water.Fast-release chemical fertilizers have a high nitrogen content compared to slow-release organic fertilizers.While the fertilizers help a plant to grow, they do not do much for the soil.There is an increasing concern that continuous use of chemical fertilizers on soil depletes the soil of essential nutrients.This phenomenon is called eutrophication.Distinguishing Between Manures and Chemical Fertilizers:.Percentage of plant nutrients (NPK) in it is high.e.g. Urea, Super phosphate, etc.Ltd www.spic.co.in Tata Chemicals Ltd. www.tatachemicals.com Zuari Agro Chemicals Ltd. zuari.in. .

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