What Are The Impact Of Overuse Of Inorganic Fertilizers Mcq
- October 31, 2021
Learn atmosphere and environment Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (MCQs), "Effects of Modern Agricultural Practices" quiz questions and answers to learn free online courses.Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) on effects of modern agricultural practices with choices high level of nitrates & eutrophications, salinization, desalinization, and increase soil fertility to learn free online courses.High level of nitrates & Eutrophications Salinization Desalinization Increase soil Fertility Answer A. .
Agriculture: cause and victim of water pollution, but change is possible
Farms discharge large quantities of agrochemicals, organic matter, drug residues, sediments and saline drainage into water bodies.Diagnosis, prediction and monitoring are key requirements for the management of agricultural practices that mitigate these harmful impacts on water resources, according to a new publication released today.According to the report – from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) program led by the International Water Management Institute – exploding demand for food with high environmental footprints, such as meat from industrial farms, is contributing to unsustainable agricultural intensification and to water-quality degradation.Aquatic ecosystems are affected by agricultural pollution; for example, eutrophication caused by the accumulation of nutrients in lakes and coastal waters impacts biodiversity and fisheries.For example, high levels of nitrates in water can cause “blue baby syndrome”, a potentially fatal illness in infants.In Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries alone, the environmental and social costs of water pollution caused by agriculture are estimated to exceed billions of dollars annually.For example, financial incentives such as taxes and subsidies on food and coupons for consumers positively influence dietary behavior.Simple off-farm techniques, such as riparian buffer strips or constructed wetlands, can cost-effectively reduce loads entering surface water bodies.Vegetated filter strips at the margins of farms and along rivers are effective in decreasing concentrations of pollutants entering waterways.Integrated systems in which crops, vegetables, livestock, trees and fish are managed collectively can increase production stability, resource use efficiency and environmental sustainability. .
The impact of the Green Revolution on indigenous crops of India
The word “Green Revolution” was coined by William S. Gaud of United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in 1968, for the introduction of new technology and policies implemented in the developing nations with aids from industrialized nations between the 1940s and the 1960s to increase the production and yield of food crops [7, 8].The yield potential doubled due to the incorporation of several traits and specific genes for short stature in HYVs [9, 10].The increased production of cereals enabled the nations to feed their growing population and averting the Malthusian scenario predicted in the 1960s [14, 15].The lack of proper technological change and land reforms combined with droughts brought India to the verge of massive famine in the mid-1960s.So, in order to save the reserves and to increase the productivity of cereals, all the stakeholders and donor agencies decided to induce changes in agricultural technology and practices [17,18,19,20].The HYVs of rice suitable for cultivation in tropical climatic conditions of South Asia were developed by the IRRI in the 1960s, based on the genetic materials drawn from China, Taiwan, and Indonesia.This cross was taken to CIMMYT, Mexico, in 1954; there several HYVs of wheat were developed by Norman Borlaug and others, and these varieties were transferred to India in the 1960s [8, 21]. .
The Role of Soil pH in Plant Nutrition and Soil Remediation
For instance, soil pH is controlled by the leaching of basic cations such as Ca, Mg, K, and Na far beyond their release from weathered minerals, leaving H+ and Al3+ ions to dominant exchangeable cations; the dissolution of CO 2 in soil water producing carbonic acid, which dissociates and releases H+ ions; humic residues from the humification of soil organic matter, which produces high-density carboxyl and phenolic groups that dissociate to release H+ ions; nitrification of to produces H+ ions; removal of N in plant and animal products; and inputs from acid rain and N uptake by plants .For many decades, intensive research has revealed that soil pH influences many biogeochemical processes.This has implications for nutrient recycling and availability for crop production, distribution of harmful substances in the environment, and their removal or translocation.Simultaneously, in accordance with biochemical changes, physicochemical processes, including dissolution, precipitation, adsorption, dilution, volatilization, and others, influence leachate quality .Soil pH controls the solubility, mobility, and bioavailability of trace elements, which determine their translocation in plants .Additionally, the quantity of dissolved organic carbon, which also influences the availability of trace elements, is controlled by soil pH.For instance, Bradl  found that at pH 5.3, the adsorption of Cd, Cu, and Zn onto a sediment composite consisting of Al-, Fe-, and Si-oxides was 60%, 62%, and 53%, respectively.Any increase or decrease in soil pH produces distinct effects on metal solubility.In contrast, Förster  found that a decrease in soil pH by one unit resulted in a ten-fold increase in metal solubility.In an experiment, he observed that at pH 7, only about 1 mg Zn·L−1 of the 1200 mg·kg−1 total Zn content was present in soil solution.Aside from adsorption, trace element concentrations at high soil pH may also be caused by precipitation with carbonates, chlorides, hydroxides, phosphate, and sulphates [11, 16].Apatite and lime applied to soils produced the highest effect on pH and simultaneously decreased the concentrations of available, leachable, and bioaccessible Cu and Cd .Soil organic matter exists in different fractions ranging from simple molecules such as amino acids, monomeric sugars, etc.The solubility and mobility of the fractions differ during and after decomposition and could lead to the leaching of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in some soils.Within the pH condition in a specific soil system, the solubility of organic matter is strongly influenced by the type of base and is particularly greater in the presence of monovalent cations than with multivalent ones .It is estimated using the metabolic quotient ( q CO 2 ) as an index  to show the efficiency of organic substrate utilization by soil microbes in specific conditions .It is observed from the literature that soil pH conditions required for microbial activity range from 5.5–8.8 [26, 31, 32].Stursova and Walker  found that organophosphorus hydrolase has optimal activity at higher pH.For instance, glycosidases have an optimal pH range between 4 and 6 compared to proteolytic and oxidative enzymes whose optima was between 7 and 9 [35, 36, 38].Shifts in microbial community composition could potentially influence enzyme production if different microbial groups require lower nutrient concentrations to construct biomass, or have enzymes which differ in affinity for nutrients .Biodegradation is the chemical dissolution of organic and inorganic pollutants by microorganisms or biological agents [34, 40].The biodegradation process rather slowed down in three acidic United Kingdom soils (pH 4.7 to 6.7) in 90 days after inoculation .Xu  found some strains of bacteria isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil in northern China being able to degrade over 70% of petroleum at pH 7 and 9.This also has implications for the functions of extracellular enzymes that aid in the microbial transformation of organic substrates.Additionally, at a higher soil pH, the mineralizable fractions of C and N increase because the bond between organic constituents and clays is broken .The volatilization of ammonia is a phenomenon that occurs naturally in all soils  and has been attributed to the dissociation of to NH 3 and H+ shown in equation (1) .The rate of acidification depends on the initial and final concentrations of ammonium as well as on the buffering capacity of the medium .This can either occur through the direct effect of biochemical processes occurring in the living organisms in the soil system, mostly through rhizosphere processes or through the direct and indirect effects of applied organic residues, whether in unburnt, burnt, or charred forms as well as their decomposition.Therefore, rhizosphere pH could increase or decrease depending on the prevailing process and types of ions released.Plant root-induced soil pH change in the rhizosphere is controlled by specific processes and factors such as (i) ion uptake coupled with the release of inorganic ions that maintain electroneutrality, (ii) the excretion of organic acid anions, (iii) root exudation and respiration, (iv) redox-coupled processes, (v) microbial production of acids after the assimilation of released root carbon, and (vi) plant genotype [58, 59].The dominant mechanism responsible for pH changes in the rhizosphere is plant uptake of nutrients in the form of cations and anions [58, 59, 65], primarily due to plant uptake of the two major forms of inorganic nitrogen ( and ), which is usually taken up in large quantities .The uptake of each of the three forms of nitrogen accompanies the release of corresponding ions to maintain electroneutrality in the rhizosphere.In contrast, protons are released by plants in response to uptake, causing a decrease in rhizosphere pH [58, 62].The extent of effects of the processes and factors controlling rhizosphere pH change depends on plant species and growth stages .Maize initially acidified the rhizosphere and gradually alkalized it over time while beans showed opposite effects.This was revealed in an experiment on apple trees (Malus pumila Miller), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), corn (Zea mays L.), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), where Metzger  found maximum concentrations of in the rhizosphere during the blooming and fruiting stages (Figure 2), which was 10–29% higher compared to the bulk soil.The concentrations of in the rhizosphere of the plants was in the order, lettuce = buckwheat > pine > apple > kaffir > cowpeas > corn > wheat.When unburnt organic materials or raw plant residues are applied to the soil, the pH increases to a peak and decrease afterwards.For instance, Forján et al.  found initial increases in soil pH when they applied a mixture of sludge from a bleach plant, urban solid waste and mine wastes, and a mixture of sludge from a purification plant, wood chips, and remnants from agri-food industries to the soil.Furthermore, in a 59-day laboratory incubation  and field experiments , it was found that the magnitude of soil pH increase following residue amendment was in the order chickpea > canola > wheat [71, 74].They observed that 40–62% of soluble alkalinity in canola and chickpea residues were responsible for the pH increases.It is obvious from these, and many other studies , that the residues of dicots, particularly legumes, have high alkalinity and produce larger effects on soil pH change than monocots.The pH increase after residue addition often reaches a peak and declines thereafter as a result of nitrification.Similar to unburnt organic materials, burnt or charred plant residues contain a larger amount of alkalinity due to the volatilization of organic constituents under thermal conditions leading to the concentration of alkaline constituents.The actual alkalinity depends on the type of biomass involved, their origin, and burnt temperature.Biochar is a solid consistent product pyrolysis, while ash is a loose powdery material obtained by combustion.Biomass ash contains substantial alkalinity, which is often expressed as percent calcium carbonate equivalence (% CCE).The mobility of unwholesome substances through the hydrological cycle cannot be overlooked here because of the intimate relationship between soil and water.These, as well as pH maxima for various microbial enzymes, could be utilized in many soil remediation strategies, particularly in bioremediation.
What do you think about using of the chemical fertilizers and
The pesticides and fertilizers are known to foul drinking water and associate with birth defects genetic abnormalities and infertility rates.Our presentday excess of atmosphereic greenhouse gases can be largely reduced by eliminating denendence which reduces the carbon and nitrogen footprint and the focusing on soil organic matter increases the major limitation of lack of optimized soil organic matter can be addressed.Soili organic matter focus and elimination of toxic chemical inputs in the form of pesticides and fertilizers is long over due. .
Common Questions About Diet, Activity, and Cancer Risk
What is acrylamide, and is it linked with an increased risk of cancer?Acrylamide is a chemical used in industrial processing.However, a large number of studies in humans have found no strong evidence that dietary acrylamide is linked with an increased risk of any type of cancer.The body uses certain nutrients and other compounds to help protect against damage to tissues that is constantly occurring as a result of normal metabolism.Because this type of damage is linked with increased cancer risk, some antioxidants are thought to protect against cancer.Studies suggest that people who eat more vegetables and fruits, which are rich sources of antioxidants, may have a lower risk for some types of cancer.In fact, some studies have found an increased risk of cancer among those taking supplements.Does it cause cancer?Arsenic is found in two forms:.The main sources of human exposure to arsenic are water and food.Natural arsenic levels tend to be higher in drinking water that comes from ground sources, such as wells.Natural arsenic levels tend to be higher in drinking water that comes from ground sources, such as wells.Studies have found that exposure to arsenic in drinking water may cause lung, bladder, and skin cancers.Because arsenic has been linked to cancer and other unwanted health effects, several US government agencies regulate arsenic levels and exposures.Does drinking coffee affect cancer risk?Whether coffee lowers or raises the risk of different types of cancer has been an active area of research.Coffee also influences the amount of time food is in the intestines, as well as liver metabolism of carcinogens, which may also contribute to a lower risk for some digestive cancers.However, at this time there is no evidence that foods now on the market that contain genetically engineered ingredients or the substances found in them are harmful to human health, or that they would either increase or decrease cancer risk.Gluten-free diet.Does eating a gluten-free diet help reduce cancer risk?There is very little evidence linking gluten intake to risk of gastrointestinal cancers in the general population.The bottom line: For people without celiac disease, there is no evidence that consuming a gluten-free diet is linked with a lower cancer risk, and many studies suggest that consuming whole grains, including those containing gluten, probably reduces the risk of colon cancer.Glycemic index is a measure of the increase in the blood level of glucose (a type of sugar) after eating a specific carbohydrate-rich food, compared with eating a standard amount of glucose.In general, high glycemic index foods are highly refined, processed grain products with added sugars and low fiber content, as well as some starchy vegetables.Do anti-inflammatory diets reduce cancer risk?Why are foods irradiated, and can these foods increase cancer risk?There is currently no evidence that irradiation of foods causes cancer or has harmful human health effects.However, juices contain less fiber, lower levels of some other healthy nutrients, and more naturally occurring sugar than the whole fruits and vegetables they are made from, so they are not the best way to get nutrients from plant-based foods.Organic foods.Are foods labeled “organic” more effective in lowering cancer risk?Many consumers also believe that organic foods may provide health benefits, but there is little evidence that organic produce has higher nutrient levels than conventionally grown produce.Little research has been done on the link between organic food consumption and cancer risk, although a recent study found eating more organic produce was linked with a lower risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.Currently, scientific evidence supports the overall health benefits and cancer‐protective effects of eating vegetables and fruits, regardless of whether they are grown using organic or conventional practices.Does sugar increase cancer risk?Several types of sugars are found in foods and beverages.There is also evidence that a dietary pattern high in added sugars affects levels of insulin and related hormones in ways that may increase the risk of certain cancers.Vegetarian/vegan diets.Do vegetarian diets reduce cancer risk?Many studies of vegetarians indicate a lower risk of cancer overall, compared to people who also eat meat.The available evidence supports the recommendation of a dietary pattern that is mainly foods from plant sources, with limited if any intake of red and processed meats. .