Show The Relationship Between Inorganic Fertilizer And Organic Fertilizer
Inorganic Fertilizer

Show The Relationship Between Inorganic Fertilizer And Organic Fertilizer

  • November 1, 2021

Both organic and inorganic fertilizers provide plants with the nutrients needed to grow healthy and strong.Determining which is better for your plants depends largely on the needs of your plants and your preferences in terms of cost and environmental impact.Fertilizers supplement the soil with macronutrients needed in large amounts: nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.Organic fertilizers contain only plant- or animal-based materials that are either a byproduct or end product of naturally occurring processes, such as manures, leaves, and compost.This slow-release method reduces the risk of nutrient leaching, but it takes time to supply nutrients to plants.Organic fertilizers continue to improve the soil long after the plants have taken the nutrients they need. .

Inorganic Fertiliser - an overview

Manure and inorganic fertilizer are the principal sources of agricultural nitrogen that are easiest to document and compare globally.Rates of nitrogen fertilizer use and changes by world regions (FAO, 2000) are shown in Figure 1.The concentration and storage of manure also increases nitrogen losses to the atmosphere (Lander et al., 1998).The processes in agricultural systems that generate nitrate support both plant growth and water contamination.These processes act on both imported sources and nitrate generated in situ.Use of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer by region since 1960. .

Co-incorporation of manure and inorganic fertilizer improves leaf

Co-incorporation of manure and inorganic fertilizer improves leaf

Co-incorporation of manure and inorganic fertilizer improves leaf

The region is characterized by a subtropical, monsoon climate with average annual rainfall of 1080 mm.The field experiment was performed in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates and a plot size of 3.9 m × 6 m (23.4 m2).Rice seeds were sown in an open filed in plastic seedling trays, and urea was applied to the nursery at the time of preparation.The recommended dose of NPK was 150:75:150 (kg ha−1), and every plot received 175.5 g of P 2 O 5 from superphosphate, 365 g of KCl from potassium chloride, and 351 g of N from PM or CM and CF (urea) after proper N estimation.The chemical composition of the organic manure and the nutrient content and quantity for each treatment are shown in Tables 5 and 6.N and KCI were applied in three splits as a basal dose (60%), at the early tillering stage (20%), and at panicle initiation (20%).Organic fertilizer, such as CM and PM were obtained from the cattle and poultry farms, located in the local area.Standard flood water was provided at a depth of approximately 5 cm from transplant to physiological maturity.Normal agricultural practices were used for all treatments, including irrigation (about 5 cm flood water), insecticide application (chlorantraniliprole formulations sprayed at the recommended rate of 150 mL a.i.Subsamples of initial soil and organic fertilizers (CM and PM) were dried at room temperature and passed through a 2-mm sieve.Total K was measured by preparing a standard stock solution by dissolving KCI in distilled water and measuring TK at 7665 R wavelength with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-5300; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) after sample digestion.The fumigation extraction technique was used to determine MBC as described by Brookes et al.73, and MBN according to the procedure of Vaince et al.74.In a vacuum desiccator, 25 ml of ethanol-free CHCL 3 was put in petri dish to disinfect first half of the soil (5 g) for 24 h at room temperature (25 °C).The filtrated samples were then processed on a TOC Analyzer (TNM1; Shimadzu) and subjected to Kjeldhal digestion in order to calculate total C (TC) and TN.Three replicate plants were collected at anthesis and at physiological maturity to measure DM and N accumulation.Pn was measured on the completely expanded flag leaf using a portable photosynthesis instrument (LI-6400, LI-COR, Lincoln, NE, USA).The sampling conditions were light intensity 1200 µmol m−2 s−1, air humidity 70%, CO 2 375 μmol mol−1, and leaf temperature 28 °C.To measure leaf chlorophyll content, 1 g of fresh leaf tissue was cut into small pieces, placed in a volumetric flask that contained 10 mL of 80% acetone solution as described in Porra et al.78, and stored in the dark for 24 h. The absorbance of the extracted solution was measured at 663 and 645 nm using a UV spectrophotometer (Infinite M200, Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland) to estimate chlorophyll a and b content (mg g−1) using the equations described by Arnon79:.Five flag leaves were collected from each treatment during the grain-filling period, immediately frozen in liquid N and stored at ‒ 80 °C for estimation of the activities of the N-metabolizing enzymes such as Nitrate reductase (NR), Glutamine synthetase (GS), and Glutamate synthase was extracted and measured using a Glutamate Synthase (GOGAT).The resulting supernatant was harvested and the absorbance at 340 nm was measured for the calculation of GOGAT activity.Grain yield (kg/ha) was measured from five central rows in each treatment and adjusted to 14% moisture content.Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between grain yield and Pn, N-metabolizing enzyme activities, pre-and post-anthesis DM, and N accumulation. .

Changes in phosphorus fractions associated with soil chemical

In NC and NX, lower P balance was due to high P uptake under combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers.Also, the manure addition provided beneficial conditions and nutritive substrate that are needed by plants during the grain filling period [ 45 ].Previous studies have reported that long-term chemical fertilization and manure addition increases the soil total phosphorus and available P stocks [ 31 ].In another study, Bravo, Torrent [ 33 ] reported that for optimal crop growth, the concentration of Olsen P should be above a critical level of 6 or 7 mg kg −1 .During the decomposition of manure, organic acids are produced, which results in the formation of P complexes along with iron and aluminum, reducing the P availability in soil.Our results are consistent with previous studies [13, 51], which found that the long-term cultivation of crops with no fertilizer application decreased the labile Pi and Po contents in the soil, and chemical fertilizer application with pig manure significantly increased the labile Pi and Po contents in the soil.In our study, the relationship between inorganic P fractions and SOM contents also showed that the addition of manure decreased the precipitation of low soluble phosphate.It was concluded by Meason et al [49] that applied phosphorus fertilizers adsorbed onto the primary minerals can play an important role in increasing the HCl-Pi pool. .

Increased organic fertilizer application and reduced chemical

Increased organic fertilizer application and reduced chemical

Increased organic fertilizer application and reduced chemical

Table 1 shows that the SOM, AN, AP and AK contents in the rhizosphere soil were the highest in T2 and the lowest in CK of the five different fertilizer treatments on day 15 after anthesis.The content of AN in the rhizosphere soil of T0 was significantly lower than that of T2 (P < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference in AN content between T3 and T0 (P > 0.05).The SOM, AN, AP and AK contents in the rhizosphere soil were the highest in M-T1 and the lowest in M-CK of the five different fertilizer treatments on day 75 after anthesis.Table 1 Effects of different fertilizer treatments on the properties of grape rhizosphere soil on days 15 and 75 after anthesis.On day 15 after anthesis, the TN, TP and TK contents of grape roots were the highest of the five different fertilizer treatments in T2 and the lowest in CK (Table 2).Table 2 Effects of different fertilizer treatments on the total N, total P and total K contents of grape roots and leaves on days 15 and 75 after anthesis.On day 75 after anthesis, the TN, TP and TK contents in the grape roots of M-CK were the lowest in all treatments, whereas the TN content in grape roots treated with increased organic fertilizer and reduced chemical fertilizer (M-T1, M-T2, and M-T3) were higher than that of M-T0 (P > 0.05), and the difference between M-T0 and M-T3 was not significant (P > 0.05).The contents of TN, TP and TK in grape leaves were the highest of five different fertilizer treatments in M-T2 and the lowest in M-CK.The TK content in the grape leaves of M-T2 was significantly higher than those of M-CK and M-T0 by 29.32% and 10.53%, respectively (P < 0.05) (Table 2).On day 75 after anthesis, the Chao1 of M-T2 was significantly (22.67% and 24.90%) higher than that of M-CK and M-T0 (P < 0.05) (Fig.The relative abundance of Chloroflexi in T0 was significantly lower than that of CK on days 15 and 75 after anthesis (P < 0.05), and the relative abundance of Chloroflexi in soils treated with increased organic fertilizer and reduced chemical fertilizer (T1, T2, and T3) was significantly lower than that in CK and T0 (P < 0.05) (Table 3).The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in T2 was significantly higher than that in CK, and the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in T0 was higher than that in T1 and lower than that in T3 (P < 0.05).The relative abundance of Actinobacteria in M-T2 was significantly lower than that in M-CK by 30.81% (P < 0.05) (Table 3).The abundance of Nitrospira in T2 was significantly higher than that in CK and T0 by 91.80% and 112.65%, respectively (P < 0.05) (Table 4).The relative abundance of Arthrobacter in T2 and T3 was significantly higher than that in CK and T0 (P < 0.05).The relative abundance of Bacillus in T2 increased by 105.74% and 74.96% compared with that in CK and T0 (P < 0.05) (Table 4).The relative abundances of Arthrobacter in M-T2 and M-T3 were significantly higher than that in M-CK (P < 0.05).The relative abundance of Arthrobacter in the M-T2 was significantly higher than that in M-CK and M-T0, by 110.90% and 52.10%, respectively (P < 0.05) (Table 4).The Chao1 and Shannon index values and the abundances of Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Nitrosopira and Bacillus were negatively correlated with pH and conductivity on days 15 and 75 after anthesis (Fig.The Chao1 and Shannon index values and the abundances of Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Nitrosopira and Bacillus were positively correlated with SOM, AN, AP and AK. .

Effect of Integrated Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on Yield and

Effect of Integrated Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on Yield and

Effect of Integrated Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on Yield and

Barley is an important food and beverage crop in the highlands of Ethiopia, although intensive cultivation and suboptimal fertilizer application have caused nutrient depletion and yield decline.Ten treatments involving the sole NP, vermicompost, conventional compost, and farmyard manure based on N equivalency were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons.The economic analysis confirmed the profitability of the integrated use of 50 : 50% conventional compost and vermicompost with recommended NP fertilizer for barley production.Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) ranks fourth among cereals in the world and is grown annually on 48 million hectares in a wide range of environments [1].CSA [3] reported that barley is the fifth most important cereal crop after teff, wheat, maize, and sorghum in total production in the country.This lower yield of food barley is attributed to lack of improved varieties and poor soil fertility management [6].Abay and Tesfaye [18] found higher barley biomass yield of 8259 and 8065 kg·ha−1, and other agronomic parameters at Adiyo and Ghimbo were obtained with the application of 5 t·ha−1 FYM in combination with 75% inorganic NP.Hence, no information is available on the yield potential of improved variety with integrated nutrient management practice in ultisols of Ambo.The integrated use of chemical and organic fertilizer rate is needed to investigate in order to utilize the potential yield of improved barley variety in the area.It lies between 8°9′80″N N latitude and 37°71′E longitude and at an altitude ranged from 2273 meter above sea level, receiving mean annual rainfall of 1040 mm with unimodal distribution [22].Similarly, Woubshet et al. [27] found significantly higher plant height of barley with the integrated application of lime, balanced fertilizer, and compost in Wolmera district.Likewise, Getachew [29] reported that the use of organic manures in combination with mineral fertilizers maximized the plant height of barley.Mean plant height performance of barley varied across years with higher in 2015 cropping season (Table 1), indicating variations in environmental factors (rainfall and temperature) and soil fertility status across smallholder farmers’ fields.The mean spike length and total number of tillers plant−1 of barley were significantly ( ) affected by the sole and integrated use of NP and organic fertilizer sources (Table 1).Getachew et al.

[35] found that the integrated application of organic with N fertilizer rate significantly improved productive tillers of barley at Holetta and Robgebeya.Correspondingly, grain yield of malting barley was significantly increased by the combined application of organic and mineral nutrients [32].Therefore, the integrated use of inorganic and organic fertilizer sources has improved yield and other soil and environmental benefits, which enhance sustainable production barley.Similarly, Abay and Tesfaye [18] reported that higher thousand grain weights (45 g and 44 g) at Ghimbo and Adiyo were obtained with the application of 5 t·ha−1 FYM in combination with 25% recommended rate of inorganic NP and 5 t·ha−1 FYM in combination with 75% recommended rate of inorganic NP, and the lowest thousand grain weights were recorded from the control plots for both locations.Getachew et al. [35] also found that amendment of organic with N fertilizer rate interaction significantly improved thousand grain weight barley at Robgebeya.Likewise, Kassu et al.

[32] reported that the total above-ground biomass of malting barley was significantly ( ) increased by the combined application of organic and mineral nutrients.Likewise, higher biomass (11,514 kg·ha−1) yields of malting barley were obtained from the application of recommended rate of NP (36–20 kg·NP ha−1) from mineral sources (DAP and urea) [32].Similarly, the application of 5 t·ha−1 FYM in combination with 75% inorganic NP gave the higher biomass yield of 8259 and 8065 kg·ha−1 at Adiyo and Ghimbo [18].Getachew et al. [35] also found that the interaction of organic amendment by N fertilizer rate significantly improved biomass yield barley at Holetta and Robgebeya.Barley production with application of 50 : 50% conventional compost with NP fertilizer gave net profit advantage of 25,484 EB with marginal rate return of 56% followed by 50 :50% vermicompost with NP fertilizer, and conventional compost gave net benefit of 25,414 and 25,356 EB·ha−1 with marginal rate return of 50 and 972% (Table 4).Similarly, Mitiku et al.

[28] also reported that the application of 5 t·ha−1 FYM + 75% inorganic NP gave the highest net return with 15,859 EB·ha−1 at Adiyo and 13,108 EB·ha−1 at Ghimbo.Likewise, Woubshet et al. [27] reported that the application of lime integrated with compost and blended fertilizer (NPSB) indicated the highest net return of EB 30633 with highest marginal rate return of 667% with values to cost ratio of EB 5.49 profit per unit investment for barley production in Wolmera district.The highest marginal rate of return of 980% was obtained with the application of 50 : 50% farmyard manure: with recommended NP for barley production (Table 4).Significantly higher grain yield of barley was obtained from integration of 50 : 50% vermicompost and conventional compost based on N equivalence with recommended NP fertilizer application.All the technical and field assistants of Natural Resources Management Research Process are also acknowledged for unreserved effort during executing the experiment.

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Bacterial Community Structure after Long-term Organic ...

Bacterial Community Structure after Long-term Organic ...

Bacterial Community Structure after Long-term Organic ...

While the effects of changes in nutrient availability due to fertilization on the soil microbial communities have received considerable attention, specific microbial taxa strongly influenced by long-term organic and inorganic fertilization, their potential effects and associations with soil nutrients remain unclear.Here, we use deep 16S amplicon sequencing to investigate bacterial community characteristics in a fluvo-aquic soil treated for 24 years with inorganic fertilizers and organics (manure and straw)-inorganic fertilizers, and uncover potential links between soil nutrient parameters and specific bacterial taxa.Our results showed that combined organic-inorganic fertilization increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents and altered bacterial community composition, while inorganic fertilization had little impact on soil nutrients and bacterial community composition.A co-occurrence based network analysis demonstrated that SOC and TN had strong positive associations with some taxa ( Gemmatimonas and the members of Acidobacteria subgroup 6, Myxococcales, Betaproteobacteria , and Bacteroidetes ), and Gemmatimonas, Flavobacterium , and an unclassified member of Verrucomicrobia were identified as the keystone taxa.These specific taxa identified above are implicated in the decomposition of complex organic matters and soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transformations.Fertilization is an essential agricultural practice used primarily to increase nutrient availability to crop plants, with concomitant changes in the soil properties, and microbial communities (Marschner et al., 2003).Certain bacterial taxa at high taxonomic levels (e.g., phylum or class) can display properties of ecological coherence since they respond predictably to environmental variables (Philippot et al., 2010; Cederlund et al., 2014).Earlier, Fierer et al. (2007) proposed that certain bacterial phyla could be differentiated into the ecologically relevant copiotrophic (or r-selected) and oligotrophic (or K-selected) categories based on their substrate preferences and life strategies.But we still have no sufficient understanding of soil bacterial taxa at low taxonomic levels (e.g., genus or species) in response to long-term fertilization.Long-term repeated addition of organic C seems to select for certain microbial taxa at low taxonomic levels that feed primarily on organic substrates and proliferate greatly, resulting in the changes in microbial community composition and soil nutrient status (Marschner et al., 2003; Zhong et al., 2010; Cederlund et al., 2014).As a consequence, specific microbial taxa of which the abundances are substantially increased by long-term fertilization should show some degree of connections with soil nutrients.Moreover, these taxa show potential beneficial or detrimental effects on crop productivity and even agroecosystem stability (Francioli et al., 2016).The complex associations occur between microbial taxa in the context of exogenous organics decomposition and soil nutrient transformations (Chen et al., 2015a; Banerjee et al., 2016).Network analysis cannot only reveal inter-taxa associations in the shared niche spaces but also link microbial taxa to environmental parameters (Fuhrman, 2009; Barberán et al., 2012).Recent studies have used high-throughput sequencing to provide new insights into the soil microbial diversity and community composition under long-term organic and inorganic fertilization (e.g., Lentendu et al., 2014; Calleja-Cervantes et al., 2015; Zhou et al., 2015; Chen C. et al., 2016; Ding et al., 2016; Francioli et al., 2016).To address these knowledge gaps, we selected a long-term field experiment receiving 24 years of various types of inorganic fertilizers and combined organics-fertilizers, measured the related parameters of soil nutrients, and analyzed the soil bacterial community characteristics using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons.We hypothesized that: since C and N are the most important resources for bacterial growth, soil C and N would show great associations with some specific taxa of which the abundances are substantially increased by long-term fertilization.A long-term fertilizer field experiment was established in 1990 at Zhengzhou (34°47′ N, 113°40′ E) of Henan Province, which is an important grain-producing area in China.The use of long-term field experiment has been approved by the legal entity “Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences.” This region undergoes a temperate monsoon climate, with an average annual precipitation, and temperature of 641 mm and 14.4°C, respectively.After visible stones and plant residues were removed, soil was homogenized and passed through a 2 mm mesh.All samples were divided into three parts, one portion was air-dried to determine the general soil properties, one was stored at 4°C to measure the potential activities of C, N and P-acquiring enzymes, and one at −20°C for molecular analyses.PCR amplification was carried out using primers F515 (5′-GTGCCAGCMGCCGCGGTAA-3′)/R806 (5′-GGACTACVSGGGTATCTAAT-3′) designed against the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene (Caporaso et al., 2011).The purified amplicons were pooled in equimolar concentrations and loaded on a MiSeq Reagent Kit V2, and dual index sequencing of paired-end 250 bp was run on an Illumina MiSeq instrument (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA).Taxonomic annotation was assigned to each OTU representative sequence by UCLUST (Edgar, 2010) in QIIME v.1.9.0 (Caporaso et al., 2010) against the Greengenes 13_8 database.Effect significance of factors was calculated by running the vegan's permutest function over the CAP model using a maximum of 500 permutations.Mantel tests revealed the correlations between soil biochemical properties and bacterial community composition.We adjusted P-values for multiple testing using the procedure of Benjamini and Hochberg (1995), and selected a false discovery rate (FDR) of 10% to denote statistical significance (Love et al., 2014; Whitman et al., 2016).Network analysis was conducted on bacterial OTUs and soil properties using the maximal information coefficient (MIC) in MINE software (Reshef et al., 2011).The MIC is a highly useful score that reveals the strength of linear and non-linear associations among variables (Reshef et al., 2011).Modular structure of highly interconnected nodes was analyzed using the MCODE application with default parameters.Inorganic fertilization (i.e., NK, NP, LNPK, and HNPK treatments) had little impact on SOC and TN contents.Stacked and unstacked histograms showing the relative abundance of (A) major bacterial phyla and dominant classes of Proteobacteria and (B) 15 most abundant bacterial families, respectively, in treatments CK (unfertilized control), NK, NP, LNPK (low rate of N, regular PK), HNPK (high rate of N, regular PK), MNPK (manure plus NPK) and SNPK (straw plus NPK).We used CAP to quantify the impacts of edaphic factors (i.e., pH, SOC, TN, AP, and AK) on bacterial community composition.Mantel test revealed great correlations of SOC (P ≤ 0.002) and TN (P = 0.001) with bacterial community composition (Table S1).These results suggest that the soil bacterial community composition under long-term fertilization was mainly driven by SOC and TN contents.Bacterial community variation between all samples from treatments CK (unfertilized control), NK, NP, LNPK (low rate of N, regular PK), HNPK (high rate of N, regular PK), MNPK (manure plus NPK) and SNPK (straw plus NPK).(A,B) Principal coordinate analysis plots of OTU-based weighted (A) and unweighted (B) UniFrac distances between samples; (C,D) Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) of weighted (C) and unweighted (D) UniFrac distances quantifying the impacts of edaphic factors on bacterial community structure.We conducted differential abundance analysis to identify OTUs that were strongly influenced by different fertilization regimes.There were 163 and 108 eOTUs (primarily the identifiable eOTUs from the phyla Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Acidobacteria, Table 2), and 248 and 126 dOTUs (primarily phyla Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, Table 2) in MNPK and SNPK, respectively (Figures 3A,B; Dataset S1).Among top 10 most influential OTUs in MNPK and SNPK, eOTUs were mainly identified as Arenimonas, Gemmatimonas, and several unclassified members of Xanthomonadaceae, and dOTUs mainly as Gaiella, Nitrospira, Sphingomonas, and several unclassified members of Sphingomonadaceae (Table 2).There were much fewer OTUs enriched and depleted by inorganic fertilization compared to combined organic-inorganic fertilization, with the notable exception of HNPK in which 123 dOTUs (primarily phyla Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria, Table 2) were comparable to SNPK (Figures 3C–F; Dataset S1).Volcano plots illustrating OTUs significantly enriched (red) and depleted (blue) by long-term fertilization compared with unfertilized control as determined by differential abundance analysis.Each point represents an individual OTU, and the Y axis indicates the abundance fold change vs. unfertilized control.Network edges were predominantly composed of strong positive associations, and the dominant identifiable OTUs belonged to Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gammaproteobacteria (Figure 4A).SOC showed a strong positive association with one Acidobacteria subgroup 6 (Gp6) member (Figure 4B; Dataset S2).Based on betweenness centrality scores, the OTUs identified as keystone taxa were Gemmatimonas, Flavobacterium and one Subdivision3 member within Verrucomicrobia (Dataset S2).(A) Network co-occurrences of OTUs substantially enriched by long-term fertilization; (B,C), Subnetworks for the associations of SOC (B) and TN (C).Bacterial communities across all treatments were dominated by the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria (Figure 1), which roughly correspond to previous studies in agricultural soils (Zhong et al., 2015; Zhou et al., 2015; Ding et al., 2016).Similar results were reported previously, based on the phospholipid fatty acid analysis (Lazcano et al., 2013; Williams et al., 2013).Our study supports the principle that the bacterial community in cropland soils is primarily influenced by organic component of agricultural fertilization.It was observed even that bacterial growth and community structure were changed in a short time period by a small fraction of organic component in the total amount of fertilizers applied (Lazcano et al., 2013).However, some studies have revealed the negligible effects of introduced bacteria from manure amendment on the soil bacterial community (Chu et al., 2007; Sun et al., 2015).We observed increased abundance of Acidobacteria but decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes in manure plus NPK treatment (MNPK) compared to straw plus NPK treatment (SNPK), and bacterial phylotypes were more enriched and depleted by MNPK compared to SNPK (Figures 1, 3).The type of C input has been found to be a main factor determining the shifts in the soil bacterial community structure (Eilers et al., 2010; Shi et al., 2011; Pascault et al., 2013).In this situation, exogenous organics, and microbial metabolites are continuously decomposed and transformed, resulting in the changes in soil C and N contents over a long period of time.On the other hand, manure and straw amendments can stimulate the activity of some oligotrophs to mineralize recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM) by using fresh organic matter as energy source, and cause a short-term change in SOM turnover, aka priming effect (Blagodatskaya and Kuzyakov, 2008).The importance of soil C and N contents in shaping bacterial community composition was also reported previously (Helgason et al., 2010; Shen et al., 2010; Sul et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2014; Chen C.

et al., 2016).We conducted differential abundance analysis to pick out OTUs that were responsible for the observed community differences between the fertilized and unfertilized soils.Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria as copiotrophs thrive under conditions where substrate availability is high (Fierer et al., 2007; Eilers et al., 2010; Nemergut et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2015b).Moreover, the Xanthomonadaceae family has been previously described as being dominant in the decomposing process of wood materials (Folman et al., 2008; Hervé et al., 2014).In summary, specific bacterial taxa substantially enriched by combined organic-inorganic fertilization play important roles in organics decomposition and soil C, N, and P transformations.Since C and N are the most important resources for bacterial growth, soil C, and N would show great associations with some specific taxa significantly enriched by long-term fertilization.Our hypothesis is confirmed by a co-occurrence based network analysis that revealed strong positive associations of SOC and TN with some taxa (e.g., Gemmatimonas and the members of Acidobacteria subgroup 6 and Myxococcales) (Figure 4; Dataset S2).Some subgroups of Acidobacteria are abundant in soils with high SOC level (Liu et al., 2014), and their ability to decompose organic matters has been reported previously (Rawat et al., 2012; Tveit et al., 2014).Betweenness centrality score discerns the modules that are most important in maintaining connectivity in an ecological network, and thus can be used for identification of keystone species (Vick-Majors et al., 2014).Based on betweenness centrality score, Gemmatimonas, Flavobacterium, and an unclassified Subdivision3 member of Verrucomicrobia were identified as the keystone taxa.In terms of organic and inorganic fertilization alone, the former usually produces lower crop yield (Seufert et al., 2012), but the latter causes more environmental problems (Davidson, 2009).The integrated strategies of organic amendments and inorganic fertilizers are evaluated as a most effective way to enhance crop productivity and increase SOM level in China (Gong et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2010; 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Fertilizer

Fertilizer

Fertilizer

[1] For most modern agricultural practices, fertilization focuses on three main macro nutrients: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K) with occasional addition of supplements like rock dust for micronutrients.Farmers apply these fertilizers in a variety of ways: through dry or pelletized or liquid application processes, using large agricultural equipment or hand-tool methods.Historically fertilization came from natural or organic sources: compost, animal manure, human manure, harvested minerals, crop rotations and byproducts of human-nature industries (i.e. fish processing waste, or bloodmeal from animal slaughter).However, starting in the 19th century, after innovations in plant nutrition, an agricultural industry developed around synthetically created fertilizers.This transition was important in transforming the global food system, allowing for larger-scale industrial agriculture with large crop yields.The use of fertilizer has also led to a number of direct environmental consequences: agricultural runoff which leads to downstream effects like ocean dead zones and waterway contamination, soil microbiome degradation,[3] and accumulation of toxins in ecosystems.Founded in 1812, Mirat , producer of manures and fertilizers, is claimed to be the oldest industrial business in Salamanca (Spain).Egyptians, Romans, Babylonians, and early Germans are all recorded as using minerals or manure to enhance the productivity of their farms.[1] The science of plant nutrition started well before the work of German chemist Justus von Liebig although his name is most mentioned.Nicolas Théodore de Saussure and scientific colleagues at the time were quick to disprove the simplications of Justus von Liebig.There was a complex scientific understanding of plant nutrition, where the role of humus and organo-mineral interactions were central, and which was in line with more recent discoveries from 1990 onwards.[8] Prominent scientists on whom Justus von Liebig drew were Carl Ludwig Sprenger and Hermann Hellriegel.A factory based on the process was built in Rjukan and Notodden in Norway, combined with the building of large hydroelectric power facilities.The Haber process produces ammonia (NH 3 ) from methane (CH 4 ) gas and molecular nitrogen (N 2 ).[14] After World War II, Nitrogen production plants that had ramped up for war-time bomb manufacturing were pivoted towards agriculture uses.The development of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer has significantly supported global population growth — it has been estimated that almost half the people on the Earth are currently fed as a result of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use.The second mode by which some fertilizers act is to enhance the effectiveness of the soil by modifying its water retention and aeration.three main macronutrients: Nitrogen (N): leaf growth Phosphorus (P): Development of roots, flowers, seeds, fruit; Potassium (K): Strong stem growth, movement of water in plants, promotion of flowering and fruiting;.micronutrients: copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), boron (B).Only some bacteria and their host plants (notably legumes) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ) by converting it to ammonia.Phosphate is required for the production of DNA and ATP, the main energy carrier in cells, as well as certain lipids.Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), such as species of Nitrosomonas, oxidize ammonia to nitrite, a process termed nitrification.[21] Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, especially Nitrobacter, oxidize nitrite to nitrate, which is extremely mobile and is a major cause of eutrophication.Urea is another popular source of nitrogen, having the advantage that it is solid and non-explosive, unlike ammonia and ammonium nitrate, respectively.A few percent of the nitrogen fertilizer market (4% in 2007)[23] has been met by calcium ammonium nitrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 • NH 4 • 10H 2 O)."Single superphosphate" (SSP) consists of 14–18% P 2 O 5 , again in the form of Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 , but also phosphogypsum (CaSO 4 • 2H 2 O).NPK ratings consist of three numbers separated by dashes (e.g., 10-10-10 or 16-4-8) describing the chemical content of fertilizers.Iron presents special problems because it converts to insoluble (bio-unavailable) compounds at moderate soil pH and phosphate concentrations.(Mt pa) China 18.7 3.0 India 11.9 N/A[31] U.S. 9.1 4.7 France 2.5 1.3 Germany 2.0 1.2 Brazil 1.7 0.7 Canada 1.6 0.9 Turkey 1.5 0.3 UK 1.3 0.9 Mexico 1.3 0.3 Spain 1.2 0.5 Argentina 0.4 0.1.[23] In this energy-intensive process, natural gas (CH 4 ) usually supplies the hydrogen, and the nitrogen (N 2 ) is derived from the air.Deposits of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) (Chilean saltpeter) are also found in the Atacama desert in Chile and was one of the original (1830) nitrogen-rich fertilizers used.These minerals are converted into water-soluble phosphate salts by treatment with sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) or phosphoric acids (H 3 PO 4 ).[34] In the nitrophosphate process or Odda process (invented in 1927), phosphate rock with up to a 20% phosphorus (P) content is dissolved with nitric acid (HNO 3 ) to produce a mixture of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ).Potash is soluble in water, so the main effort in producing this nutrient from the ore involves some purification steps; e.g., to remove sodium chloride (NaCl) (common salt).Organic fertilizers can also describe commercially available and frequently packaged products that strive to follow the expectations and restrictions adopted by “organic agriculture” and ”environmentally friendly" gardening – related systems of food and plant production that significantly limit or strictly avoid the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.It is an immature form of coal and improves the soil by aeration and absorbing water but confers no nutritional value to the plants.Organic fertilizers such as composts and manures may be distributed locally without going into industry production, making actual consumption more difficult to quantify.The most widely used solid inorganic fertilizers are urea, diammonium phosphate and potassium chloride.For fertilizer use, granules are preferred over prills because of their narrower particle size distribution, which is an advantage for mechanical application.During summer, urea is often spread just before or during rain to minimize losses from volatilization (a process wherein nitrogen is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia gas).Drilling must not occur on contact with or close to seed, due to the risk of germination damage.In grain and cotton crops, urea is often applied at the time of the last cultivation before planting.Nitrification inhibitors (also known as nitrogen stabilizers) suppress the conversion of ammonia into nitrate, an anion that is more prone to leaching.[42] Urease inhibitors are used to slow the hydrolytic conversion of urea into ammonia, which is prone to evaporation as well as nitrification.[48] Agricultural and chemical minerals are very important in industrial use of fertilizers, which is valued at approximately $200 billion.[49] Potash is produced in Canada, Russia and Belarus, together making up over half of the world production.[50] Conservative estimates report 30 to 50% of crop yields are attributed to natural or synthetic commercial fertilizers.Data on the fertilizer consumption per hectare arable land in 2012 are published by The World Bank.[54] The diagram below shows fertilizer consumption by the European Union (EU) countries as kilograms per hectare (pounds per acre).This figure equates to 151 kg of fertilizers consumed per ha arable land on average by the EU countries.The large growing consumption of fertilizers can affect soil, surface water, and groundwater due to dispersion of mineral use.This waste takes the form of impure, useless, radioactive solid called phosphogypsum.The main contributor to eutrophication is phosphate, which is normally a limiting nutrient; high concentrations promote the growth of cyanobacteria and algae, the demise of which consumes oxygen.The nitrogen-rich compounds found in fertilizer runoff are the primary cause of serious oxygen depletion in many parts of oceans, especially in coastal zones, lakes and rivers.The resulting lack of dissolved oxygen greatly reduces the ability of these areas to sustain oceanic fauna.[63] As of 2006, the application of nitrogen fertilizer is being increasingly controlled in northwestern Europe[64] and the United States.[65][66] If eutrophication can be reversed, it may take decades[citation needed] before the accumulated nitrates in groundwater can be broken down by natural processes.[67] High application rates of nitrogen-containing fertilizers combined with the high water solubility of nitrate leads to increased runoff into surface water as well as leaching into groundwater, thereby causing groundwater pollution.[68][69][70] The excessive use of nitrogen-containing fertilizers (be they synthetic or natural) is particularly damaging, as much of the nitrogen that is not taken up by plants is transformed into nitrate which is easily leached.Nitrate levels above 10 mg/L (10 ppm) in groundwater can cause 'blue baby syndrome' (acquired methemoglobinemia).[76] The phosphate rock used in their manufacture can contain as much as 188 mg/kg cadmium[77] (examples are deposits on Nauru[78] and the Christmas islands[79]).[90][91][92] Where high annual rates of phosphorus fertilizer are used, this can result in uranium-238 concentrations in soils and drainage waters that are several times greater than are normally present.[91][93] However, the impact of these increases on the risk to human health from radinuclide contamination of foods is very small (less than 0.05 mSv/y).Steel industry wastes, recycled into fertilizers for their high levels of zinc (essential to plant growth), wastes can include the following toxic metals: lead[96] arsenic, cadmium,[96] chromium, and nickel.These highly water-soluble fertilizers are used in the plant nursery business and are available in larger packages at significantly less cost than retail quantities.Some inexpensive retail granular garden fertilizers are made with high purity ingredients.Attention has been addressed to the decreasing concentrations of elements such as iron, zinc, copper and magnesium in many foods over the last 50–60 years.[101] Although improved crop yields resulting from NPK fertilizers are known to dilute the concentrations of other nutrients in plants,[100][102] much of the measured decline can be attributed to the use of progressively higher-yielding crop varieties that produce foods with lower mineral concentrations than their less-productive ancestors.Fertilizers are, in fact, more likely to solve trace mineral deficiency problems than cause them: In Western Australia deficiencies of zinc, copper, manganese, iron and molybdenum were identified as limiting the growth of broad-acre crops and pastures in the 1940s and 1950s.[106] Soils in Western Australia are very old, highly weathered and deficient in many of the major nutrients and trace elements.High levels of fertilizer may cause the breakdown of the symbiotic relationships between plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi.The greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are produced during the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizer.[114][needs update] Nitrogen fertilizer can be converted by soil bacteria to nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas.[115] Nitrous oxide emissions by humans, most of which are from fertilizer, between 2007 and 2016 have been estimated at 7 million tonnes per year,[116] which is incompatible with limiting global warming to below 2C.It has a global warming potential 296 times larger than an equal mass of carbon dioxide and it also contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion.These emissions contribute to global climate change as methane is a potent greenhouse gas.

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