Give An Example Of Inorganic Fertilizer
Inorganic Fertilizer

Give An Example Of Inorganic Fertilizer

  • November 2, 2021

A visit down the fertilizer aisle in your garden center can leave you scratching your head in confusion.With so many numbers to consider -- different formulations, ratios, grades and application rates -- you may decide you need a degree in math to figure things out.Then, as you consider the different nutrients listed on the package -- elements like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron -- you strain to remember even a cursory knowledge of high-school science classes.If you broadcast a randomly chosen fertilizer on your lawn, in your flower beds or vegetable garden, you may be wasting money on nutrients that your particular plants don't need; or even worse, you may do more harm than good by providing excessive fertilization that can burn -- or even kill -- your plants.And the misconception that organic fertilizers can't harm your plants can lead to disastrous results.Based on our soil-test recommendations, your next decision is whether to use an organic or inorganic fertilizer to provide the needed nutrients.The Grounds Guys can help you determine the suitability of both types of fertilizer to meet your overall landscape goals.Whether your fertilizer goal is simply to create a lush, green, healthy lawn, or whether you desire a multi-faceted landscape with borders, beds and islands, The Grounds Guys can help.Starting with the preliminary work of soil testing to choosing suitable organic or inorganic fertilizers and then applying them properly, we'll make sure your yard receives the utmost of care. .

What Are the Examples of Inorganic Fertilizers?

What Are the Examples of Inorganic Fertilizers?

What Are the Examples of Inorganic Fertilizers?

Plants require 16 different elements, whether from an organic or inorganic source, in order to thrive.Ammonium nitrate is 33- to 34-percent nitrogen.However, it is not as nitrogen-rich as ammonium nitrate or urea, and fertilizer manufacturers must add more of this compound to their product in order to reach the same nitrogen amount, increasing production costs.Like potassium chloride, it is a mining product, consisting of ground phosphorous rock or limestone treated with phosphoric acid. .

Inorganic fertilizers (Mineral Fertilizer)

Inorganic fertilizers (Mineral Fertilizer)

Inorganic fertilizers (Mineral Fertilizer)

Fertilizers typically provide, in varying proportions, the three major plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium), the secondary plant nutrients (calcium, sulfur, magnesium), and sometimes trace elements (or micronutrients) with a role in plant nutrition: boron, chlorine, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and molybdenum.Inorganic fertilizers (Mineral Fertilizer).FERTILIZERS can be divided into macronutrients or micronutrients based on their concentations in plant dry matter.The macronutrients are consumed in larger quantities and normally present as whole number or tenths of percentages in plant tissues.An 18−51−20 fertiliser therefore contains, by weight, 18% elemental nitrogen (N), 22% elemental phosphorus (P) and 16% elemental potassium (K).In general, agricultural fertilizers contain only one or two macronutrients.Many controlled release fertilizers are intended to be applied approximately every 3-6 months, depending on watering, growth rates, and other conditions, whereas water-soluble fertilizers must be applied at least every 1-2 weeks and can be applied as often as every watering if sufficiently dilute.Chemist Justus von Liebig (in the 19th century) contributed greatly to understanding the role of inorganic compounds in plant nutrition and devised the concept of Liebig's barrel to illustrate the significance of inadequate concentrations of essential nutrients.Nitrogen fertilizer is often synthesized using the Haber-Bosch process, which produces ammonia.This ammonia is applied directly to the soil or used to produce other compounds, notably ammonium nitrate, a dry, concentrated product.Organic fertilizers.Naturally occurring minerals such as mine rock phosphate, sulfate of potash and limestone are also considered Organic Fertilizers.Then there is the matter of how effective they are at promoting plant growth, chemical soil test results aside.Since the majority of nitrogen supplying organic fertilizers contain insoluble nitrogen and are slow release fertilizers their effectiveness can be greater than conventional nitrogen fertilzers.Organics also have the advantage of avoiding certain long-term problems associated with the regular heavy use of artificial fertilizers:.This results in prohibitive transportation and application costs, especially where the agriculture is practiced a long distance from the source of the organic fertilizer.In practice a compromise between the use of artificial and organic fertilizers is common, typically by using inorganic fertilizers supplemented with the application of organics that are readily available such as the return of crop residues or the application of manure.Some approved fertilizers may be inorganic, naturally occurring chemical compounds, e.g. minerals...When prolonged algae blooms occur over many years, the effect is a process called eutrophication.It is also possible to over-apply organic fertilizers.However: their nutrient content, their solubility, and their release rates are typically much lower than chemical fertilizers, partially because by their nature, most organic fertilizers also provide increased physical and biological storage mechanisms to soils.For these reasons, it is recommended that knowledge of the nutrient content of the soil and nutrient requirements of the crop are carefully balanced with application of nutrients in inorganic fertiliser especially.

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Inorganic Fertilizer Vs. Organic Fertilizer

Inorganic Fertilizer Vs. Organic Fertilizer

Inorganic Fertilizer Vs. Organic Fertilizer

Both organic and inorganic fertilizers provide plants with the nutrients needed to grow healthy and strong.Determining which is better for your plants depends largely on the needs of your plants and your preferences in terms of cost and environmental impact.Fertilizers supplement the soil with macronutrients needed in large amounts: nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.Organic fertilizers contain only plant- or animal-based materials that are either a byproduct or end product of naturally occurring processes, such as manures, leaves, and compost.This slow-release method reduces the risk of nutrient leaching, but it takes time to supply nutrients to plants.Organic fertilizers continue to improve the soil long after the plants have taken the nutrients they need. .

Chemical Fertilizer vs Organic Fertilizer

Chemical Fertilizer vs Organic Fertilizer

Chemical Fertilizer vs Organic Fertilizer

Organic fertilizers are substances that are derived from the remains or byproducts of natural organisms which contain the essential nutrients for plant growth.Since they are prepared from inorganic materials artificially, they may have some harmful acids, which stunt the growth of microorganisms found in the soil helpful for plant growth naturally.They’re rich in the three essential nutrients needed for plant growth.One of the distinct advantages of chemical fertilizers over organic fertilizers is that chemical fertilizers are rich equally in all three essential nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium.On the other hand, organic fertilizers may be rich in one of the three nutrients, or may have low levels of all the three nutrients.One needs several pounds of organic fertilizer to provide the same soil nutrient levels that a single pound of chemical fertilizer provides, and the higher cost of organic fertilizer is one of the biggest reasons that organic produce is more expensive than non-organic.In contrast to organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizers are always there to provide immediate supply of nutrients to plants if situation demands.One of the main disadvantages of chemical fertilizers is that, in contrast to organic fertilizers, several chemical fertilizers have high acid content like sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.Chemical fertilizers always have a high total NPK (nitrogen:phosphorous:potassium), from 20 to 60 percent or more.Another way to measure is in total tonnage — the total tons it takes to deliver the nutrient content. .

Chemical Fertiliser - an overview

Traditional farming systems generally included a period of fallow in the cropping sequence to help restore soil fertility.Spreading animal manures in the field, as well as inclusion of leguminous crops, helped to add nitrogen, a principal nutrient, to the soil.In 1840, Justus von Liebig of Germany, called the “father” of soil chemistry, proved that treatment with strong acid increased the availability of bone nutrients to plants.Necessity impelled the development of artificial fertilizers, which are chemical substances containing, in forms readily available to plants, the elements that improve the growth and productivity of crops.Potash fertilizer could be extracted in readily soluble forms, such as potassium chloride, from geological deposits found in several countries, including Germany, France, the USA, Canada, and from the brine of the Dead Sea.The need to mine and transport these substances across the ocean, and the frequent disruption of international trade by wars in the twentieth century, made these fertilizer sources too expensive and insecure. .

Chemical fertilizers: Examples, advantages and disadvantages

Chemical fertilizers: Examples, advantages and disadvantages

Chemical fertilizers: Examples, advantages and disadvantages

A fertilizer is a natural or synthetic, chemical-based substance containing one or more nutrients essential for enhancement of plant growth and soil fertility.Nitrogenous fertilizers are the nitrogen-containing organic substances that supply the nutrition of nitrogen to the plants.Nitrate and ammonium fertilizers: e.g.Ammonium phosphate.Ammonium hydrogen phosphate.Potassium fertilizers are the potassium-containing organic substances that supply the nutrition of potassium to the plants.Some Important Chemical Fertilizers.Calcium Ammonium Nitrate [Ca (N0 3 ) 2 NH 4 NO]:.This is a nitrogenous fertilizer which is directly absorbed by the plants.Urea is the most important nitrogenous fertilizer because of its high N content (46%N).Calcium Cyanamide (also called Nitrolim) is a chemical compound used as fertilizers.This fertilizer is used before introducing seed into the soil but never used for the growth purposes of the crops.Calcium nitrate [Ca (N0 3 ) 2 ]:.Advantages and Disadvantages of Chemical Fertilizers:.The leaching away of chemical fertilizers pollutes the water.Fast-release chemical fertilizers have a high nitrogen content compared to slow-release organic fertilizers.While the fertilizers help a plant to grow, they do not do much for the soil.There is an increasing concern that continuous use of chemical fertilizers on soil depletes the soil of essential nutrients.This phenomenon is called eutrophication.Distinguishing Between Manures and Chemical Fertilizers:.Percentage of plant nutrients (NPK) in it is high.e.g. Urea, Super phosphate, etc.Ltd www.spic.co.in Tata Chemicals Ltd. www.tatachemicals.com Zuari Agro Chemicals Ltd. zuari.in.

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6. Fertilizing Fish Ponds

6. Fertilizing Fish Ponds

6. Fertilizing Fish Ponds

By increasing the availability of major nutrients, fertilizers promote the development of planktonic algae, which provide food for many fish .Fertilization also leads to the development of animals which feed on algae, including some fish such as the Chinese silver carp and the Nile tilapia.When a fertilizer is added to a fish pond, the chemicals it contains dissolve in the water, where:.a portion is usually rapidly taken up by the phytoplankton present, either to be stored , sometimes in quite large proportions, or to be assimilated and used for growth, reproduction, etc.; another portion is attracted by and becomes attached to the organic and mineral particles present, both in the pond water and in the upper layers of the bottom mud or soil.This second portion may also assist the development of bacteria , responsible for the decomposition of organic matter.The decomposition of organic matter may in turn release more nutrients back into the mud or water.The chemicals attached to soil particles may also later be released back into the water slowly , over a long period of time.They may also migrate deeper into mud and soil, where they will no longer affect the water body, unless the pond bottom is dried or ploughed (see Section 2.5).Most of these phenomena are linked with and controlled by water quality and in particular temperature, pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen level., which contain only mineral nutrients and no organic matter; they are manufactured industrially to be used in agriculture for improving crop production and they can be obtained from specialized suppliers; organic fertilizers , which contain a mixture of organic matter and mineral nutrients; they are produced locally, for example as wastes from farm animals or as agricultural wastes.(a) Small-scale fish farms tend to rely on organic fertilizers as they are cheap and available locally.(b) Large-scale fish farms most often adopt inorganic fertilizers, as they are more easily stored and distributed.on larger scale Easy Mineral content Variable, low Consistent, high to very high Organic matter Present Absent Effect on soil structure Improvement No Direct food for fish Yes No Decomposition process Yes, with oxygen consumption No Price Low to medium High to very high Cost per nutrient unit Higher Lower Availability Possibly in neighbourhood or even on own farm Commercial suppliers only; sometimes imported Direct pond fertilization Possible by raising animals on or near the pond Not feasible.When using fertilizers to increase fish production in your ponds, you should aim to establish and maintain a dense growth of planktonic algae (phytoplankton) and zooplankton , which should colour the water a rich shade of green.To establish and maintain a good plankton bloom at minimum cost , watch for the following points.(b) If present, bottom mud should be good quality, not too thick and mostly made of fine detritus; too much cellulose* slows down its decomposition.Control the emersed vegetation and the mud thickness, if possible by draining and drying (see Section 2.5).(c) Reduce the competition for nutrients and sunlight by controlling the floating and submersed vegetation (see Section 4.9).(f) Add more fertilizer as needed according to the plankton density (see Section 10.1, Management, 21 ), using small amounts regularly, if possible.Chemical qualities of a poor water supply Phosphates Less than 0.1 mg/l Nitrates Less than 2 mg/l Potassium Less than 0.1 mg/l Calcium and magnesium Less than 15 mg/l.The Secchi disc transparency (see Section 2.3) can be used as a simple method for judging plankton turbidity and the need for additional fertilization of a fish pond.Depending on the value observed, control and manage the pond as shown in the following chart.Closely observe fish for signs of dissolved oxygen depletion (see Section 2.5).As long as your hand is not visible when your elbow is at the water surface , there is no need for fertilization.: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); secondary nutrients : calcium, magnesium and sulphur, for example;.: calcium, magnesium and sulphur, for example; trace nutrients in very small quantities, such as manganese, zinc, copper and iron.(a) Fertilizers which contain only one or sometimes two primary nutrients retain their chemical name such as superphosphate (P) or ammonium phosphate (N + P) (see Table 14).In addition, many types of mixed fertilizer are commercially available according to the local needs of plant crops.Generally phosphorus is the limiting primary nutrient most often missing in natural water supplies for good growth of planktonic algae.Note : some nitrogen fertilizers, such as ammonium compounds and urea, are acid forming .When applied to a pond, additional liming may be required to maintain water pH and total alkalinity within adequate limits (see Section 5.1).This situation may happen in ponds built in swampy areas or in peaty soils .(a) The chemical quality of the water supply : have at least one good chemical analysis carried out, checking on total phosphorus, phosphates, nitrogen, nitrates and potassium concentrations as well as total alkalinity and pH.(b) The nature of the pond bottom soil (sandy/light or clayey/heavier) and its chemical characteristics should be examined, such as pH and concentrations of calcium and primary nutrients.a highly soluble chemical , unless you want a longer-term effect, for example correcting the water quality at the same time;., unless you want a longer-term effect, for example correcting the water quality at the same time; a small particle size .hard pond bottom and little aquatic vegetation Typical amount, per hectare, for one production cycle 30-60 kg eq.Buy in small quantities, only as much as you need, and store them for the shortest possible time, particularly nitrogen and potassium fertilizers .Protect fertilizers from humidity and rain by storing them on a wooden platform under a roof, by wrapping them in plastic sheets or by doing both of these things.Unless the production cycle is very short, inorganic fertilizers are usually applied to fish ponds at regular intervals:.and at least ten to 15 days before stocking with fish; during the production cycle , at short intervals of one to two weeks.Application of inorganic fertilizers during the production cycle should be based on observations of both water quality and fish behaviour (see Section 6.0).Fertilize your pond inorganically if at least one of the following is present Yes No Water temperature at noon Above 16�C Below 16�C Secchi disc transparency More than 40 cm Less than 40 cm Water pH at sunset Less than 9 More than 9 Dissolved oxygen before sunrise More than 3 mg/l Less than 3 mg/l.As you learned earlier, the kind and amount of inorganic fertilizer to use can vary greatly from one pond to another.It is therefore not possible to recommend any specific mixture or dosage which would give best results in all locations.(a) When the pond is full of water, make an initial application of phosphate fertilizer equivalent to 125 to 175 g P 2 O 5 /100 m2 or 12.5 to 17.5 kg/ha.You obtain superphosphate containing 20 percent P 2 0 5 equivalent ( Table 14 ) and decide to apply it at the rate of 150 g P 2 O 5 /100 m2.(d) Repeat this process at regular intervals of seven to 15 days so as to maintain the SD transparency at between 40 and 60 cm throughout the production cycle.(e) Keep checking on water quality and fish behaviour to further modify your fertilization programme if necessary (see criteria in chart above).Note : if potassium fertilizer is required, use 0.35 to 0.80 kg K 2 O/100 m2 according to local conditions (see Table 15 ).(a) Apply regularly at very short intervals of preferably seven to 15 days, especially if the pond bottom is sandy and little mud has built up over it.This is especially important for phosphate fertilizers , because the bottom mud or soil can quickly turn the soluble phosphorus into insoluble compounds, which are then of limited use for the pond water.Water currents help to disperse the dissolved chemicals through the entire pond area.(a) From a wooden post, suspend a small bag made of cotton or burlap, about 30 cm underwater.At the end of this period, empty the insoluble filler from the bag and add a new dosage of fertilizer.(b) Use a floating perforated container such as a woven basket or a plastic can with holes, attached to the inside of a car tyre inner-tube.Using buckets, distribute this solution evenly over the whole pond surface from the banks or, if necessary, from a boat.On these platforms, permanently install a large container such as a 200-l metal drum, equipped with a small outflow valve about 10 cm above its base.In many instances, especially for small farmers, organic fertilizers are the most effective way of increasing natural food supply in ponds to improve fish production.As pond fertilizers, animal manures have such great advantages that they should be preferred whenever' possible.Some fish, such as the Nile tilapia, may even be produced in large quantities without any additional feeding.They are a source of additional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), which is very important for the efficient utilization of the nutrients present in the water.However, animal manures also have some disadvantages , mostly related to their low content in primary nutrients , their negative effect on dissolved oxygen content and the reluctance of some fish farmers to use animal wastes directly in fish ponds.The chemical composition of organic manure varies greatly according to the animal from which it originates - namely the species, age, sex, the nature of its diet - and according to the way the manure is handled, namely its relative freshness, conditions of storage and rate of dilution with water.Throughout the world, most animal manure is obtained from a limited number of species such as buffalo, cattle (bullock, dairy cows or fattening beef), horses or donkeys, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry (chicken, ducks, geese).Examples of solid manure composition in primary nutrients NPK , on a dry weight basis, are given in Table 16 .Manures from cattle and horses are poorer in nutrients, especially when the animals feed on grass only.The total amount of manure produced daily by various animals depends mainly on their live weight , as shown in Table 17 .Depending on the conditions under which the manure can be collected, it may be mixed with other kinds of organic matter such as:.litter material , for example straw used for the bedding of horses and cattle or rice husks used in some chicken houses;.Liquid manure or solid poultry wastes are preferred, because cow or horse dung usually contains a lot of insoluble cellulose especially if mixed with stable litter.Large losses of nitrogen and carbon occur during storage, especially if the manure is left in the open air and in the rain.Animal housing can be designed to improve the collection and distribution of manure to the ponds (see Chapter 7).Note : in new ponds with sandy soil , cattle manure with higher fibre content may be preferable to help form the bottom mud.After the first application, the pond should be fertilized at regular Intervals throughout the fish production cycle.For best results, fertilize your ponds with manure frequently , at short intervals preferably not less than once a week.Recent research has shown that best fertilization results are obtained in ponds where a constant flow of organic carbon is maintained through the entire food web (see Section 10.1).Dense populations of planktonic algae, bacteria and zooplankton are thus established and kept relatively stable, preventing sudden high peaks of abundance of various groups.The water quality, such as dissolved oxygen content, also remains much more stable and favourable for fish production.As you have already learned (see Section 6.1), you should monitor your pond carefully during fertilization to avoid fish losses.If you do not have enough animal manure to fertilize all your fish ponds, give priority to those where its effects are especially beneficial:., particularly if their bottom soil is sandy and contains little organic matter; nursery ponds , if frequently drained and/or where limited time is available to boost up natural food production.Because of the increased demand of dissolved oxygen caused by the addition of organic matter to the pond water, you should limit the amount of animal manure to be applied at any one time .To determine how much dry matter (DM) a specific manure contains, you can measure it yourself .Alternatively you can use Table 17 , next to last column, which gives you the average dry matter content in percent of the solid wastes , for fresh manures .Note : if you are using liquid manure , you should be even more careful because of its relatively high content in ammonia , a very toxic gas for fish.(b) Maximum amount of fresh solid manure to be safely applied per day in 100 m2 of tropical fish pond is shown in the chart (see also Table 17 ):.Solid manure Maximum amount (kg fresh/100 m2 /d) Buffalo 6.3 Cattle 6.0 Horse 5.2 Sheep/goat 3.4 Pig 6.0 Duck 2.8 Chicken 4.8.The amount of animal manure to be applied to a particular pond varies greatly, depending on factors such as climate, water and soil quality, characteristics of the manure and kind of cultural system (type of fish, rearing density, length of rearing period).(a) As an approximate guide, in small tropical rural ponds generally from 100 m2 to 300 m2 in size, apply once or preferably twice a week, one of the following :.(b) For more controlled application in a warm climate, at relatively low rearing densities of fish :.about ten to 15 days before stocking the fish, apply fresh manure at the equivalent rate of 10 to 20 kg dry matter per 100 m 2 , either to the dry bottom (drainable pond) or to the water (undrainable pond);.; every week thereafter, check on water quality , increasing or decreasing the preceding amount of dry matter accordingly (see paragraph 19 and attached chart).about ten to 15 days before stocking the fish, apply fresh manure at the equivalent rate of 10 to 20 kg dry matter per 100 m 2 ;.(d) After two weeks, if the water quality permits , slightly increase the daily amount of pig manure, for example up to 6 to 6.5 kg/day.(e) Every two weeks , slightly increase the daily amount of the manure until you reach the safe maximum of 6 kg/100 m2 /day or (6 kg x 2.5) = 15 kg/day for your pond.DM tot = total dry matter needed to manure the ponds, in kg.This is equivalent to 2000 x (100 � 25) = 8000 kg of chicken droppings, at 25 percent dry matter content.However, you can obtain only 3000 kg of chicken droppings , and the rest of the manure has to be solid pig waste , 20 percent dry matter content.Calculate how much pig waste (M 2 ) you will need to mix with the chicken droppings before treating your ponds, as follows:.The dry bottom of a drained pond should be manured at least two weeks after it has been limed (see Section 5.4).Inorganic fertilizers may be applied at the same time, except if they contain too much calcium such as basic slag (see Section 6.2).It is usually best not to spread the manure all over the pond bottom but instead to stack it in heaps or in rows at regular intervals.Note : a number of methods for the placement or the distribution of animal manure in various situations are illustrated below.It is preferable to use either cattle and/or horse manure with stable litter or chicken droppings.If the fish have not yet been stocked in the pond, pure animal manure may be applied evenly over the entire water surface.Once the pond has been stocked with fish, you may apply liquid manure directly over its entire water surface.Place the manure underwater in heaps at regular intervals along the pond banks.Additional phosphorus and nitrogen are usually beneficial to maintain a good plankton bloom (see Section 6.1).(e) Always maintain and adjust your fertilization by checking water quality (see paragraph 19) and fish behaviour (see Section 2.5).Note: remember that if you raise farm animals , it is an advantage to keep them close to your fish ponds .In some cases, you may even raise the animals in the pond, which is then automatically and continuously manured without extra cost or work.agro-industrial wastes such as cotton seed, molasses, mahua oilcake and oil-palm sludge (4 to 5 percent nitrogen).Note : wastes such as rice hulls, sugar-cane stalks and sawdust are rich in cellulose , which decomposes very slowly in the pond., the digested sludge remaining after biogas production, which contains about 10 percent dry matter; cassava tubers of the bitter species, which may be soaked in ponds to remove the toxic cyanhydric acid before consumption, form an excellent and cheap way to fertilize your small ponds;.The average amounts of these organic fertilizers to be applied to small ponds are given in Table 18 .With the exception of slaughterhouse wastes and cassava tubers, these organic fertilizers are applied to the pond water in one or more heaps .The fertilizing material is stacked and compacted inside to initiate underwater composting (see Section 6.4).As described above, it is best to turn over or at least mix the heap of decomposing material every week, before adding new organic matter.Organic fertilizers commonly used in small-scale fish farming Organic fertilizer Average amount applied at regular intervals Animal manures See Section 6.2 Cattle rumen content.(c) Chop 200 to 250 kg of vegetal matter into small pieces, per 100 m2 of pond water.(e) After seven to ten days, turn the heap over and remove all undecomposed pieces that have remained hard.(f) Add finely chopped vegetal matter on top of the heap and compact it well.(g) Seven to ten days later, turn the heap over, remove all hard pieces and add another 20 to 25 kg/100 m2 of finely cut vegetal matter.Composting involves the intensive decomposition by micro-organisms of organic materials , generally under controlled conditions.This process makes it possible to utilize a wide range of cheap wastes, residues and natural vegetation for the production of a clean, dry material rich in organic matter and primary nutrients.As you have previously learned (see Section 6.3), compost may be used in fish ponds as an organic fertilizer .In drained ponds, compost is spread over the bottom area at the rate of 50 kg/100 m2 and mixed with the upper soil layer before refilling.Composting is carried out by different groups of micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi* and protozoa* , which require mostly carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) for their development.the carbon to nitrogen ratio (see items 7 to 12) of the organic materials to be composted should be in the 30 to 40 range ;.It is usually expressed as a single number that tells how many times more carbon is present than nitrogen.If the C/N ratio of pig manure averages 14, this organic material contains 14 times as much carbon as nitrogen.The C/N ratios of organic materials commonly used to make compost in rural areas are given in Table 19 .compostable materials rich in nitrogen , with a small C/N ratio, are mostly animal husbandry products, slaughterhouse wastes, vegetable residues, aquatic weeds, grass cuttings, legume leaves, oilseed, molasses and biogas slurry;., with a small C/N ratio, are mostly animal husbandry products, slaughterhouse wastes, vegetable residues, aquatic weeds, grass cuttings, legume leaves, oilseed, molasses and biogas slurry; compostable materials poor in nitrogen , with a high C/N ratio, are cereals stalks and leaves (excluding maize), sugar-cane stalks and leaves, rice husks, peat,straw and sawdust.urine) 4 - - - Farmyard manure, average 14 - - - Slaughterhouse wastes Mixed wastes 2 - - - Blood 3 - - - Bone meal 8 - - - Fish wastes 4 - - - Crop residues Straw from barley, wheat, rice - - - 80-100 Stalks, leaves: sugar cane - - - 115 maize - - 55 - cotton, millet - - 70 - potato - 25 - - groundnut - 19 - - soybean - 32 - - Cotton seed/s Vegetable residues 13 - - - Tobacco leaves 13 - - - Fruit wastes - 30 - - Groundnut shells - 36 - - Rice husks - - - 150 Cotton seeds, delintered 5 - - - Oilseed cake, neern 4.5 - - - Household wastes - 25 - - Vegetation , aquatic Seaweed - 19 - - Water hyacinth - 20 - - Vegetation , terrestrial Grasses, mixed: young 16 - - - old - 40 - - Ferns - 35 - - Lucerne, red clover 18 - - - Tree leaves : general - - 55 - Borassus sp.12 - - - Miscellaneous Biogas slurry (from cattle dung) - 20 - - Brewery wastes 15 - - - Sawdust: rotted - - - 200 fresh - - - +500.Some organic materials such as soybean stalks and leaves, groundnut shells, old grasses and weeds and some fruit wastes with a good C/N value of 30 to 40 can be used directly for composting.(d) Calculate the proportions (on a dry weight basis) in which you should use the materials from each group to have C/N within the 30 to 40 range.You plan to use pig dung (C/N 14), chicken droppings (C/N 10) and rice straw (C/N 110) to make compost.Particular characteristics of composting methods Characteristics Aerobic composting Anaerobic composting Presence of oxygen Necessary, for oxydation process No, for reduction process Losses of nitrogen Yes, important (NH 3 ) Reduced, if good sealing Losses of carbon Yes, important (C0 2 ) Reduced, if good sealing Production of heat Important (up to 65�C or more) Very small Destruction of pathogens Yes No Moisture content To be controlled, best 40-60% Not important Composting method in heap, above ground level in heap.You have already learned how to compost aquatic and terrestrial vegetation in the pond itself, where it can be heaped into a bamboo frame.Build the heap somewhat higher than the water surface, as its height will slowly decrease.It is then most important to ensure that air is always present within the composting pile to maintain rapid and full decomposition of the organic materials.in heaps above ground level : better during seasons with heavy rainfall; easier to turn over and keep well aerated; but losses in nitrogen and carbon are higher; or.: better during seasons with heavy rainfall; easier to turn over and keep well aerated; but losses in nitrogen and carbon are higher; or in pits dug into the ground : site on high-level ground to avoid flooding; protect with trenches around if necessary; better in dry climates to retain moisture; losses in nitrogen and carbon are slightly lower.To prepare a cheap compost from grass cuttings under tropical conditions, you can use a simple heap method as follows.(c) Within this area, and starting from its perimeter, build a 40-cm layer of grass cuttings, about 250 kg.(g) Protect the heap under a small shed built, for example, with bamboo and grass.Under tropical conditions, to prepare a cheap compost from water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), a floating aquatic plant, use the heap method as follows.Puncture the bamboo pipes along two opposite lines to give access to air;.Puncture the bamboo pipes along two opposite lines to give access to air; some coarse material, such as straw or stipes of banana leaves.(g) Continue to build up the heap around the bamboo pipes with the rest of the plant mix.A simple method of preparing compost in tropical rural areas from various materials such as tree leaves, grass, household wastes, rice husks, straw and animal manure, is the following:.(c) Add a second layer of 5 to 10 cm made of low C/N material , preferably animal manure.If you do not have enough animal manure, sprinkle some nitrogen fertilizer on top of each high C/N layer (see Section 6.1).(a) At the bottom of the first pit, build a first layer of coarse material, 30 cm deep.(b) Add a second layer about 10 cm thick of a mix of low C/N material, including animal manure if available, and moisten as necessary.(c) Set up, or lay across, bundles of grass, stalks or sticks, or bamboo pipes (see above), to provide air spaces in the composting pile.(e) When the pit is full and the pile rises above the ground, cover it with plenty of straw.(g) After about three weeks under tropical conditions, turn the pile over by transferring it to an empty pit next to it. .

Synthetic vs. Organic Fertilizers

Synthetic vs. Organic Fertilizers

Synthetic vs. Organic Fertilizers

Synthetic vs. Organic Fertilizers.Plants require 13 nutrients.Plants cannot distinguish between an organic or synthetic fertilizer – the nutrients are processed in exactly the same way.Compost and organic material introduces beneficial microorganisms.Plants may then take up the nutrients released by these.Limitations of chemical fertilizers: Most chemical fertilizers do not contain micronutrients.Chemical fertilizers can release nutrients too quickly, creating a great deal of top growth before the roots are able to catch up.In conclusion, “Dirt” becomes good soil only when you have these other components; organic matter, living organisms, moisture, and nutrients for plants and microorganisms.Healthyplants require healthy soil!Alan Hanson and Jerry Gach are the owners of Blue Ridge Vermiculture Back to top. .

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